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Articles for Translators and Translation Companies
Machine Translation




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Переводчики диктуют
Если сравнивать, с чисто технической точки зрения, письменный перевод с переводом устным, то основное их отличие — это СКОРОСТЬ. Устная речь производит около 3000 слов в час, и это естественный процесс…
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Advice to freelance translators on MT post-editing projects
MT post-editing projects can be divided into two main categories, depending on the expected level of quality of the final output…
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Human Translation vs. Machine Translation: Rise of the Machines
Different approaches to automatic evaluation of machine translation (MT) quality are considered. We describe several methods for automatic evaluation of MT, such as methods based on string matching and n-gram models. The candidate translations done by Google and PROMPT are compared with the reference translation by an automatic translation evaluation program and the results of the evaluation are presented…
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Free Online Translators: A Comparative Assessment of www.worldlingo.com, www.freetranslation.com, and www.translate.google.com
The present article focuses on three free online translation packages—www.worldlingo.com, www.freetranslation.com, and www.translate.google.com —and asks the following: If the objective of anglophone users is to understand the meaning of a given source text (ST), which of these packages would he/she be best advised to use? Taking a text of approximately 200 words from the European Commission’s website, this article asks each of its chosen packages to translate the ST from three source languages (SLs) into English…
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Olympic Targets
Eight years and two Olympic Games ago, I wrote an article titled " Tapping Into the Olympic Spirit: The Pillars of Translation." Inspired by the classical columns of the Greek Olympic hosts, I tried to narrow down the four pillars of translation that give us the required balance in our everyday lives as translators…
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Compatibility of Languages and Other Restrictions in the Statistical Translation by Google Translate
Sometimes we wonder whether machines can replace humans in a particular area. The development of information technologies enables that fewer calculations have to be performed manually, computers take over some of the tasks completely and thereby do not require human control. In the field of machine translation, programs mostly serve as a tool for professionals, machine production here still needs improvement...
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С родного на чужой и обратно: тестируем 7 онлайн-переводчиков
Выбор онлайн-переводчика – дело ответственное и неочевидное. Известно, что различные сервисы предоставляют неодинаковое качество перевода, более того – это качество у одного и того же сервиса разнится в зависимости от выбранной языковой пары. Как не ошибиться в выборе и получить наилучший результат для нужного языка?...
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Milengo leverages Google Translator Toolkit with Google Adwords
Last month when Milengo announced they had been selected by Google as an official localization vendor to help open translation accessibility to millions of users globally we contacted Adam Blau, Rebellion Leader at Milengo, for comment...
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Language Resources for Translation in Multilingual Question Answering Systems
In the field of Information Retrieval monolingual and multilingual tools are being created that can greatly assist specialists in their work; as well as helping other users find a wide variety of information. Multilingual tools are evolving but several years of study and research are still needed to improve implementations. One of the main difficulties facing these tools is the task of translating queries made by users and the documentary sources found in response (Diekema, 2003)...
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Совместимость языков и другие ограничения в статистическом переводе Google Translate
Порой мы задаемся вопросом, может ли машина заменить человека в определенной сфере. Развитие информационных технологий приводит к тому, что все меньше расчетов нужно проводить вручную, а некоторые задачи компьютер может взять на себя полностью и не требует контроля человека...
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More Reflections of a Human Translator on Machine Translation in The Field of Patent Translation
Eleven years ago I wrote an article for the Translation Journal titled "Reflections of a Human Translator on Machine Translation." The subtitle of the article was "Will MT Become the 'Deus Ex Machina' Rendering Humans Obsolete in an Age When Deus Est Machina? A lot has changed since I wrote that article. Computers have become much smaller and much more powerful...
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Overcoming the Digital Divide through Machine Translation
The digital divide is the gap between those with regular; effective access to digital technologies, in particular the Internet, and those without. Researchers have quoted many factors responsible for the digital divide, including: low internet access, low literacy rate, geographical locations, economic conditions, and language barrier. Efforts are being made to provide Internet access by expanding the internet cafés for public use. Communication costs have dropped and many other negative factors have been eliminated or alleviated...
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An Analysis of Google Translate Accuracy
Although not appropriate for all situations, machine translation (MT) is now being used by many translators to aid their work. Many others use MT to get a quick grasp of foreign text from email, Web pages, or other computer-based material which they would not otherwise understand. Free, Web-based MT services are available to assist with this task, but relatively few studies have analyzed their accuracies. In particular, to our knowledge, there has been no comprehensive analysis of how well Google Translate (GT) performs...
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Traducción automática y software libre en la formación de traductores
After an analysis of the technological training of translation students, machine translation is described and compared with human translation. Then, the professional situations for which this kind of translation is useful are considered. After enumerating the types of machine translation, some examples of free machine translation systems are listed. The final conclusion is that machine translation has achieved acceptable quality levels and can be useful for professional translators working with certain types of texts and also for Translation teachers and students...
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Lionbridge Partners with IBM for Real-Time Multilingual Solutions (Interview with Satish Maripuri, COO of Lionbridge)
On April 22nd Lionbridge and IBM announced their strategic agreement to accelerate the development and commercialization of a SaaS-based, Real-Time Translation Automation solution for the Commercial Markets. We interviewed Lionbridge COO, Satish Maripuri to find out more about the announcement...
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Interview with Olga Beregovaya, CEO of PROMT Americas (Machine Translation Solutions Supplier)
PROMT is an established name in machine translation and is now becoming a solid player in enterprise automated translation solutions. The company has a unique offering targeting the professional translation community, both in-house localization departments and translation agencies...
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A Prototype System For Machine Interpretation
Effective machine interpretation (MI) or computer-assisted interpretation (CAI) is now a reality. However, most MI systems are capable of supporting only a few languages. This paper describes a new, portable prototype that is capable of recognizing unlimited vocabulary in 6 different languages, translating between any two of 51, and generating speech in 21. A test of spoken English to Korean shows that although there were several errors during the speech recognition and translation phases, the resulting speech was still acceptable...
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Will Human Translators Be Here Tomorrow?
Any product or service, including translations, can be defined in terms of three parameters: cost, delivery time, and quality. All machine translation systems offer unbeatable speed and very low prices, principally if you are going to deal with high volumes. Web-based systems are free, at least for the time being...
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Hostile Takeover? Welcome Addition? Machine Translation Enters the World of the Translator
It's been an interesting phenomenon. Professional translators seem to loathe and fear machine translation as much as they ever have - or, because of MT's slow but steady encroaching into "our" territory, more than ever - but translation environment tools [TEnTs] left and right are including machine translation components into their workflow...
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The Efficacy of Round-trip Translation for MT Evaluation
Round-trip translation (RTT), otherwise known as reverse translation or back-and-forth translation, involves the translation of text from one language to another (the forward translation or FT) and back again (the back translation or BT), e.g., a paragraph written in English can be translated to Spanish, and then, the resulting Spanish text can be translated back to English again. RTT has been used in several previous studies (e.g., Glidden-Tracey & Greenwood, 1997; Klaudy, 1996)...
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Automatic Web Translators as Part of a Multilingual Question-Answering (QA) System: Translation of Questions
The traditional model of information retrieval entails some implicit restrictions, including: a) the assumption that users search for documents, not answers; and that the documents per se will respond to and satisfy the query, and b) the assumption that the queries and the document that will satisfy the particular informational need are written in the same language. However, many times users will need specific data in response to the queries put forth...
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Machine translation: integrating automation into an effective localization strategy
As the pace of globalization increases, companies are faced with new challenges including staying ahead of the competition by reaching global markets faster, communicating with global customers in multiple languages, and the increasing cost and complexity of doing business on a global scale...
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Automatic Translation in Multilingual Electronic Meetings
Electronic meetings, e.g., chat rooms and bulletin boards, can be more efficient and effective than traditional, oral discussions, but until only recently, online groups speaking many languages could not benefit from machine translation (MT). Although it is possible for linguists to provide translations for the group members as they read comments during a multilingual discussion, this is not feasible for large groups and many languages...
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The Language Software Revolution
The continued expansion of the global market, and the realization that English may have already reached its zenith as the global internet language, requires transnational corporations to utilize multilingual means of reaching new markets. In the process of accessing new audiences for their products, transnational corporations must ensure that the messages in marketing ads are grammatically and culturally correct...
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The possibility of language: a discussion of the nature of language, with implications for human and machine translation
L’heure de vérité a sonné, Melby en est conscient. Les résultats de plusieurs années de recherche sont convaincants. Pour le moment, la substitution définitive du traducteur par la machine est irréalisable et celle de la traduction humaine par la traduction automatique de haute qualité reste ponctuelle...
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Machine Translation Used by the US Government
This time, we look at the "parallel universe" of government translation work and how machine translation and some variants are employed there. Many of the new developments reported in this series came from the AMTA (Association for Machine Translation in the Americas) conference held October 21-25, 2008 in Hawaii...
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Machine Translation: Ingredients for Productive and Stable MT deployments - Part 2
Before we dive into current trends in Machine Translation research, I'd like to clarify the part of the translation problem that is usually addressed by MT research - the fully-automated translation of digitized text sentences from one language to another. Processes or "software solutions" that incorporate MT may involve other research-worthy steps just to get the input into digitized text form…
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Machine Translation: Ingredients for Productive and Stable MT deployments - Part 1
This is the first of three planned articles reporting on Machine Translation industry developments that emerged at the AMTA (Association for Machine Translation in the Americas) conference held in Honolulu, Hawaii, October 21-25, 2008. AMTA conferences are held every other year, and have the goal of bringing together users, developers and researchers on MT…
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Transfer-based machine translation
Transfer-based machine translation is a type of machine translation, it is based on the idea of interlingua and is currently one of the most widely used methods of machine translation...
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Comparison of machine translation applications
Basic general information for popular Machine translation applications - Name; Official Website; Platform; License; Price; Latest stable release...
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List of research laboratories for machine translation
The following is a list of research laboratories that focus on machine translation - Corporate Labs; Government Labs; University Labs...
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Evaluation of machine translation
Various methods for the evaluation for machine translation have been employed. This article will focus on the evaluation of the output of machine translation, rather than on performance or usability evaluation. Before covering the large scale studies, a brief comment will be made on one of the more pervasive evaluation techniques, that of round-trip translation (or "back translation")...
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Interlingual machine translation
Interlingual machine translation is one of the classic approaches to machine translation. In this approach, the source language, i.e. the text to be translated is transformed into an interlingua, i.e., an abstract language-independent representation. The target language is then generated from the interlingua. Within the rule-based machine translation paradigm, the interlingual approach is an alternative to the direct approach and the transfer approach...
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Example-based machine translation
The Example-based machine translation (EBMT) approach to machine translation is often characterized by its use of a bilingual corpus with parallel texts as its main knowledge base, at run-time. It is essentially a translation by analogy and can be viewed as an implementation of case-based reasoning approach of machine learning...
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Statistical machine translation
Statistical machine translation (SMT) is a machine translation paradigm where translations are generated on the basis of statistical models whose parameters are derived from the analysis of bilingual text corpora. The statistical approach contrasts with the rule-based approaches to machine translation as well as with example-based machine translation. The first ideas of statistical machine translation were introduced by Warren Weaver in 1949, including the ideas of applying Claude Shannon's information theory...
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Making Machine Translation Easier: Using Language Software to Identify GUI Strings
In the last three decades, major companies have attempted to improve the comprehensibility of their technical publications by implementing various types of Controlled Language (CL). A CL places particular restraints on lexicon, grammar, and style to improve the clarity, consistency, and translatability of texts…
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Dispelling the myths of machine translation
It is not surprising that myths, half-truths, and misunderstandings abound regarding machine translation: It seems as if the experience most players in the translation field have with this technology does not go beyond toying a little with one of the free online translation tools. In the hope of setting the record straight, here is a closer look at some of the most common myths about machine translation...
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Wikipedia about machine translation
Machine translation, sometimes referred to by the abbreviation MT, is a sub-field of computational linguistics that investigates the use of computer software to translate text or speech from one natural language to another. At its basic level, MT performs simple substitution of words in one natural language for words in another. Using corpus techniques, more complex translations may be attempted, allowing for better handling of differences in linguistic typology...
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The Rise of the Machine! (Machine Translation, that is)
One of the original anticipated uses of computers was machine translation. By Machine Translation (MT), we mean the automation of the translation process. As early as the 1950’s a primitive experiment of translating sixty Russian sentences into English was deemed a success and resulted in a period of significant funding for research which through various ebbs and flows continues to this day…
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Is machine translation a choice?
When a translator works upon a translation, a complex series of operations belies the ostensibly simple process that is taking place. It has long been the goal of computational linguists to achieve fully automatic high quality machine translation, but to date that goal is some way off, nevertheless, with the means at our disposal today, is machine translation a viable choice?…
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Machine Translation Vs Human Translation
Much have been said about translation as being one of the most effective, if not the only, means of communication especially among cultures of different languages. Translation as a concept has existed hundred years ago, but it is only during the second half of the twentieth century that it emerged as an independent academic discipline called Translation Studies and taught at universities…
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Interlingual Machine Translation: Prospects and Setbacks
This study, in an attempt to rise above the intricacy of 'being informed on the verge of globalization,' is founded on the premise that Machine Translation (MT) applications searching for an ideal key to find a universal foundation for all natural languages have a restricted say over the translation process at various discourse levels. Our paper favors not judging against the superiority of human translation vs. machine translation or automated translation in non-English speaking settings…
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Statistical Machine Translation and Translation Memory: an Integration Made in Heaven
High quality machine translation (MT) of human languages has been a quest for more than five decades. Almost as soon as computers were invented, developers and business people could imagine the solutions automated translation would provide in supporting international business, aiding communications, and furthering collaboration in the medical and research communities…
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Machine Translation (MT) - the 80% Solution?
In 2000 LISA Director Michael Anobile and then Newsletter Editor Deborah Fry spoke with Tom Lueck, CEO of veteran machine translation company Logos, about machine translation, the Internet and the future of the language technology market. We are running this article from the 2000 Archives to allow readers to decide what progress, and how much, has been made during the last three years in the field of MT …
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The development and use of machine translation systems and computer-based translation tools
This survey of the present demand and use of computer-based translation software concentrates on systems designed for the production of translations of publishable quality, including developments in controlled language systems, translator workstations, and localisation; but it covers also the developments of software for non-translators, in particular for use with Web pages and other Internet applications, and it looks at future needs and systems under development. The final section compares the types of translations that can be met most appropriately by human and by machine (and computer-aided) translation respectively …
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Machine translation and human translation: in competition or in complementation?
Ever since the idea of using computers to translate natural languages was first proposed in the 1940s and since the first investigations were begun in the 1950s, translators have watched developments either in scorn or in trepidation. Either they have dismissed the very notion that anyone could even believe that translation could be mechanized, or (at the other extreme) they have feared that their profession would be taken over entirely by machines …
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Towards a new vision for MT (Machine translation)
The MT Summit series of conferences began nearly fifteen years ago, in 1987 at Hakone, Japan. Much has changed in the field of MT since then. Many of the methods, systems and techniques that are familiar to us today have emerged in the last fifteen years. For example, in the late 1980s there were no example-based MT systems, no statistics-based methods, there were no translation memories, there was no text alignment, there was no localization industry …
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Machine translation today and tomorrow
The field of machine translation (MT) was the pioneer research area in computational linguistics during the 1950s and 1960s. When it began, the assumed goal was the automatic translation of all kinds of documents at a quality equalling that of the best human translators. It became apparent very soon that this goal was impossible in the foreseeable future …
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MT and Language: Conflicting Technologies?
In a previous piece (Where Do Translators Fit Into Machine Translation?), I sought to direct a variety of philosophical, linguistic, and practical questions to members of the MT community during one of their major international conferences. Since response to these questions has been less than deafening, I would now like to suggest a few possible answers and speculations of my own concerning these matters …
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Where Do Translators Fit into Machine Translation?
Here are the original questions for this panel as submitted to the speakers:
1. At the last MT (Machine Translation) Summit, Martin Kay stated that there should be "greater attention to empirical studies of translation so that computational linguists will have a better idea of what really goes on in translation and develop tools that will be more useful for the end user." Does this mean that there has been insufficient input into MT processes by translators interested in MT? …
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Two German Books About Machine Translation
These slick, green paperbacks could not be more business-like in their appearance. They are clearly serious books intended to deal with serious issues. And their twenty assembled authors carry out this intent in an uncompromising fashion without a hint of the history behind their subject. And herein perhaps lies the chief fault in these competent but circumscribed volumes …
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Machine Translation
"Automatic translation" or "machine translation" systems have been available for a number of years. The underlying assumption is that a computer can translate as well as a human translator.
We have recently tried out two machine translation systems available on the internet. We tested their ability to translate two short texts: one financial, the other legal…
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Machine Translation: Ingredients for Productive and Stable MT deployments - Part 3
This is the final part of the first in a new series of articles on how to achieve successful deployments of machine translation in various use cases. Different types of source documents and different uses for the translations lead to varying approaches to automation. In the first part of this article, we talked about why it is so important to automate translation of knowledge bases…
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Machine Translation and Computer-Assisted Translation: a New Way of Translating?
This paper begins with a brief analysis of the importance of translation technology in different spheres of modern life, followed by a concise history of machine and computer-assisted translation. It then describes the technology available to translators in this first decade of the twenty-first century and examines the negative and positive aspects of machine translation and of the main tools used in computer-assisted translation: electronic dictionaries, glossaries, terminology databases, concordances, on-line bilingual texts and translation memories. Finally the paper considers the impact of these new technologies on the professional translator, concluding that s/he will need to acquire new skills in order to remain efficient and competitive in the field.
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The Interpretive Model and Machine Translation
For a long time, translation formed part of linguistic studies (see G. MOUNINs works). However, during the last few decades, it has been institutionally associated with Language Sciences, which represent a vast and very dynamic field in which interdisciplinarity plays a key role. This association has led to the burgeoning of a translation science (traductology or translation studies) within the field of Language Sciences which does not deal specifically with translation but with translation operations and process, thus reflecting the change in perspective adopted to approach the study object. Our aim is to put forward an epistemological analytical grid of the field in question i.e. the works related to the analytical study of translation and its natural processing as a prelude to machine translation or computer-assisted translation. However, delimiting a field requires one or several perspectives in order to define its axes, issues, methods and aims…
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