Linguistics
Welcome to the world of language jobs!
 
Portal for Language Professionals and their Clients.  39,000+ Freelance Translators.  7,000+ Translation Agencies.
Linguistics articles for translators and linguists
Home Database of Translation Agencies Database of Translators Become a Member! Submit Your Article Hire Translators!

Menu

  Become a Member
  Edit Your Profile
  Find Translation Jobs
  Find Rare Translation Jobs
  Find Very Rare Language Jobs
  Find Jobs in Rarest Pairs
  Read Testimonials
  Read More Testimonials
  Read Even More Testimonials
  Read Still More Testimonials
  Read Yet More Testimonials
  Upload Your Resume
  Add Your Translation Agency
  Receive All Jobs by RSS
  Work for Translation Agencies
  Post Your Translation Job
  Hire Translators-Members
  Hire All Translators
  Easily Contact Translators
  Hire Translation Agencies Members
  Contact All Translation Agencies
  Obtain Blacklisted Employers
  Read Articles (By Category)
  Read Articles (By Index)
  Read Sense-of-Life Articles
  Read Work-at-Home Articles
  Use Free Dictionaries
  Use Free Glossaries
  Use Free Photographs
  Use Free File Sharing
  Use Free Software
  Use Free Translators
  Vote in Polls for Translators
  Subscribe to Free Newsletter
  Advertise Here
  Apply to Collection Agencies
  Buy Database of Translators
  Buy Translation Agencies List
  Watch Out for Scam E-mails
  Post Your Free Ad
  Use Resources for Translators
  Use Online Directory
  Ask Questions in Forum
  Admire God's Creations

Advertisements

Articles for Translators and Translation Companies
Linguistics




Become a member of TranslationDirectory.com at just $8 per month (paid per year)

Scribal abbreviations
Scribal abbreviations, or Sigla (singular: siglum and sigil) are the abbreviations used by ancient and medieval scribes writing in Latin, and later in Greek and Old Norse. Modern manuscript editing (substantive and mechanical) employs sigla as symbols indicating the location of a source manuscript and to identify the copyist(s) of a work...
Read the full article…

Señoras y Señores diputados/'Onorevoli deputati'. Un estudio contrastivo del léxico político español/italiano
In this article the postulates of Robert Lado's lexicon are applied to the study of Italian and Spanish political language. Most terms proposed are extracted from the Italian translation of Diario de Sesiones del Congreso de lo Diputados. Thus, this study tries to provide the researcher of Political Sciences with some of the needed tools to identify the 'false friends' (most of all the 'illusory' ones) between the Spanish and the Italian political languages...
Read the full article…

Corpus Linguistics Approach: A Novel Framework for Translation Studies Research
As a relatively new approach, corpus linguistics emerged in 1960's which was an important point in the way of applying corpus studies in language sciences. The term "Corpus Linguistics" was initially presented by Leech in 1980s (Leech, 1992). Leech in 1992, speaks of the general story of corpus linguistics. In the 1940s to 1950s, American structuralists were increasingly interested in using corpora. "A corpus of authentically occurring discourse was the thing that the linguist was meant to be studying"...
Read the full article…

Investigating the Role and Variability of Miscellaneous English Cohesive Devices Across Registers
As throughout our lives we deal with a great variety of texts and discourses, we intuitively know what lexical and syntactical patterns we should use when we want to produce discourse appropriate to certain situations. Text producers and recipients also feel that in some cases they are free to choose from a variety of linguistic means to express their communicative purposes, while in others there are strict regulations imposed on what lexis and syntactical structures to use...
Read the full article…

Word Formation Processes in English
One of the distinctive properties of human language is creativity, by which we mean the ability of native speakers of a language to produce and understand new forms in their language. Even though creativity is most apparent when it comes to sentence formation, it is also manifest in our lexical knowledge, where new words are added to our mental lexicon regularly. In this paper the most comprehensive expositions of word formation processes that speakers of a language use regularly (and unconsciously too) to create new words in their language are presented...
Read the full article…

Word formation process
Nowadays, the terms ‘word formation’ does not have a clear cut, universally accepted usage. It is sometimes referred to all processes connected with changing the form of the word by, for example, affixation, which is a matter of morphology...
Read the full article…

Vowel length
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. Often the chroneme, or the "longness", acts like a consonant, and may etymologically be one such as in Australian English. While not distinctive in most dialects of English, vowel length is an important phonemic factor...
Read the full article…

Vowel harmony
Vowel harmony is a type of long-distance (see below) assimilatory phonological process involving vowels in some languages. In languages with vowel harmony, there are constraints on what vowels may be found near each other...
Read the full article…

Vowel
In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language, such as English ah! or oh!, pronounced with an open vocal tract so that there is no build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis. This contrasts with consonants, such as English sh!, where there is a constriction or closure at some point along the vocal tract...
Read the full article…

Verb phrase
In linguistics, a verb phrase or VP is a syntactic structure composed of the predicative elements of a sentence and functions in providing information about the subject of the sentence...
Read the full article…

Universal grammar
Universal grammar is a theory of linguistics postulating principles of grammar shared by all languages, thought to be innate to humans (linguistic nativism). It attempts to explain language acquisition in general, not describe specific languages...
Read the full article…

T-unit
In linguistics, the term T-unit was coined by Hunt in 1965. It is defined as the "shortest grammatically allowable sentences into which (writing can be split) or minimally terminable unit", and thus is often but not always a sentence...
Read the full article…

Tone
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning - that is, to distinguish or inflect words. All languages use pitch to express emotional and other paralinguistic information, and to convey emphasis, contrast, and other such features in what is called intonation...
Read the full article…

Systemic functional grammar
Systemic functional grammar (SFG) or systemic functional linguistics (SFL) is a model of grammar that was developed by Michael Halliday in the 1960s. It is part of a broad social semiotic approach to language called systemic linguistics...
Read the full article…

Programming language
A programming language is an artificial language designed to express computations that can be performed by a machine, particularly a computer. Programming languages can be used to create programs that specify the behavior of a machine, to express algorithms precisely, or as a mode of human communication...
Read the full article…

Periodic sentence
A periodic sentence (also called a period) is a sentence that is not grammatically complete until its end. Periodicity is accomplished by the use of parallel phrases or clauses at the opening or by the use of dependent clauses preceding the independent clause...
Read the full article…

Non-finite clause
In linguistics, a non-finite clause is a subordinate clause whose verb is non-finite; for example, many languages can form non-finite clauses from infinitives. Like any subordinate clause, a non-finite clause serves a grammatical role — commonly that of a noun, adjective, or adverb — in a greater clause that contains it...
Read the full article…

Natural language processing
Natural language processing (NLP) is a field of computer science concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages. Natural language generation systems convert information from computer databases into readable human language...
Read the full article…

List of language regulators
This is a list of bodies that regulate standard languages...
Read the full article…

List of constructed languages
This list of constructed languages is in alphabetical order, and divided into auxiliary, engineered, and artistic (including fictional) languages, and their respective subgenres...
Read the full article…

Linguistic typology
Linguistic typology is a subfield of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural features. Its aim is to describe and explain the structural diversity of the world's languages. It includes three subdisciplines: qualitative typology, which deals with the issue of comparing languages and within-language variance, quantitative typology, which deals with the distribution of structural patterns in the world’s languages, and theoretical typology, which explains these distributions...
Read the full article…

Language planning
Language planning refers to deliberate efforts to influence the behaviour of others with respect to the acquisition, structure, or functional allocation of language. Typically it will involve the development of goals, objectives and strategies to change the way language is used...
Read the full article…

Language family
A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common ancestor, called the proto-language of that family. As with biological families, the evidence of relationship is observable shared characteristics. An accurately identified family is a phylogenetic unit...
Read the full article…

Grammatical polarity
Grammatical polarity is the distinction of affirmative and negative, which indicates the truth or falsehood of a statement respectively. In English, grammatical polarity is generally indicated by the presence or absence of the modifier not, which negates the statement. Many other languages contain similar modifiers...
Read the full article…

Formant
A formant is a peak in the frequency spectrum of a sound caused by acoustic resonance. In phonetics, the word refers to sounds produced by the vocal tract. In acoustics, it refers to resonance in sound sources, notably musical instruments, as well as that of sound chambers. However, it is equally valid to talk about the formant frequencies of the air in a room, as exploited, for example...
Read the full article…

Epenthesis
In phonology, epenthesis is the addition of one or more sounds to a word, especially to the interior of a word. Epenthesis may be divided into two types...
Read the full article…

English spelling reform
English spelling reform is the collective term for various campaigns and efforts to change the spelling of the English language to make it simpler and more rationally consistent...
Read the full article…

Elision
Elision is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase, producing a result that is easier for the speaker to pronounce. Sometimes, sounds may be elided for euphonic effect...
Read the full article…

Diglossia
In linguistics, diglossia, also called linguistic duality, is a situation where, in a given society, there are two (often closely-related) languages, one of high prestige, which is generally used by the government and in formal texts...
Read the full article…

Constructed language
A constructed or artificial language - known colloquially or informally as a conlang - is a language whose phonology, grammar, and/or vocabulary have been consciously devised by an individual or group, instead of having evolved naturally...
Read the full article…

Areal feature
In linguistics, an areal feature is any typological feature shared by languages within the same geographical area. Resemblances between two or more languages (whether typological or in vocabulary) can be due to genetic relation...
Read the full article…

Place of articulation
In articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact, where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an active (moving) articulator (typically some part of the tongue) and a passive (stationary) articulator (typically some part of the roof of the mouth)...
Read the full article…

Tonal language
A tonal language is a language that uses tone to distinguish words. Tone is a phonological trait common to many languages around the world (though rare in Europe, the Middle East, South Asia, and the Pacific). Chinese is perhaps the most well-known of such languages...
Read the full article…

Spelling
Spelling is the writing of a word or words with the necessary letters and diacritics present in an accepted standard order. It is one of the elements of orthography and a prescriptive element of language. Most spellings attempt to approximate a transcribing of the sounds of the language into alphabetic letters...
Read the full article…

Assimilation
Assimilation is a common phonological process by which the phonetics of a speech segment becomes more like that of another segment in a word (or at a word boundary). A common example of assimilation would be "don't be silly" where the /n/ and /t/ in "don't" become /m/ and /p/, where said naturally in many accents and discourse styles ("dombe silly")...
Read the full article…

First language
A first language (also mother tongue, native language, arterial language, or L1) is the language a human being learns from birth. A person's first language is a basis for sociolinguistic identity...
Read the full article…

Transformational grammar
In linguistics, a transformational grammar, or transformational-generative grammar (TGG), is a generative grammar, especially of a natural language, that has been developed in a Chomskyan tradition. Additionally, transformational grammar is the Chomskyan tradition that gives rise to specific transformational grammars...
Read the full article…

Subject
According to a tradition that can be tracked back to Aristotle, every sentence can be divided in two main constituents, one being the subject of the sentence and the other being its predicate...
Read the full article…

Predicate
In traditional grammar, a predicate is one of the two main parts of a sentence (the other being the subject, which the predicate modifies). In current linguistic semantics, a predicate is an expression that can be true of something...
Read the full article…

Sentence
In linguistics, a sentence is a grammatical unit of one or more words, bearing minimal syntactic relation to the words that precede or follow it, often preceded and followed in speech by pauses, having one of a small number of characteristic intonation patterns...
Read the full article…

Phoneme
In human language, a phoneme (from the Greek: φώνημα, phōnēma, "a sound uttered") is the smallest posited structural unit that distinguishes meaning. Phonemes are not the physical segments themselves, but, in theoretical terms, cognitive abstractions or categorizations of them...
Read the full article…

List of writing systems
This is a list of writing systems (or scripts), classified according to some common distinguishing features. The usual name of the script is given first (and bolded); the name of the language(s) in which the script is written follows...
Read the full article…

Head-driven phrase structure grammar
Head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG) is a highly lexicalized, non-derivational generative grammar theory developed by Carl Pollard and Ivan Sag (1985). It is the immediate successor to generalized phrase structure grammar...
Read the full article…

Finite verb
A finite verb is a verb that is inflected for person and for tense according to the rules and categories of the languages in which it occurs. Finite verbs can form independent clauses...
Read the full article…

Accent
In linguistics, an accent is a manner of pronunciation of a language. Accents can be confused with dialects which are varieties of language differing in vocabulary and syntax as well as pronunciation...
Read the full article…

Postalveolar consonant
Postalveolar consonants are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, placing them a bit further back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself, but not as far back as the hard palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants)...
Read the full article…

Retroflex consonant
In phonetics, retroflex consonants are consonant sounds used in some languages. (They are sometimes referred to as cerebral consonants, especially in indology.) The tongue is placed behind the alveolar ridge, and may even be curled back to touch the palate: that is, they are articulated in the postalveolar to palatal region of the mouth...
Read the full article…

Higher order grammar
Higher Order grammar (HOG) is a grammar theory based on higher-order logic. It can be viewed simultaneously as generative-enumerative (like Categorial Grammar and Principles & Parameters) or model theoretic (like Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar or Lexical Functional Grammar)...
Read the full article…

Syllable nucleus
In phonetics and phonology, the nucleus (sometimes called peak) is the central part of the syllable, most commonly a vowel. In addition to a nucleus, a syllable may begin with an onset and end with a coda, but in most languages the only part of a syllable that is mandatory is the nucleus. The nucleus and coda form the rime of the syllable...
Read the full article…

Dependency grammar
Dependency grammar (DG) is a class of syntactic theories developed by Lucien Tesnière. It is distinct from phrase structure grammars, as it lacks phrasal nodes. Structure is determined by the relation between a word (a head) and its dependents...
Read the full article…

Fricative consonant
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. These may be the lower lip against the upper teeth, in the case of [f]; the back of the tongue against the soft palate, in the case of German [x], the final consonant of Bach; or the side of the tongue against the molars, in the case of Welsh [ɬ], appearing twice in the name Llanelli. This turbulent airflow is called frication. A particular subset of fricatives are the sibilants...
Read the full article…

Dental consonant
In linguistics, a dental consonant or dental is a consonant that is articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as /t/, /d/, /n/, and /l/ in some languages. Dentals are primarily distinguished from sounds in which contact is made with the tongue and the gum ridge, as in English...
Read the full article…

Ambiguous grammar
In computer science, a grammar is said to be an ambiguous grammar if there is some string that it can generate in more than one way (i.e., the string has more than one parse tree or more than one leftmost derivation)...
Read the full article…

Alveolar consonant
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth...
Read the full article…

Affricate
Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as [t] or [d]) but release as a fricative (such as [s] or [z] or occasionally into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel...
Read the full article…

Voiced alveolar fricative
The voiced alveolar fricatives are consonantal sounds. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents these sounds depends on whether a sibilant or non-sibilant fricative is being described...
Read the full article…

Stop consonant
A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. The terms plosive and stop are usually used interchangeably, but they are not perfect synonyms. Plosives are oral stops with a pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism...
Read the full article…

Sonorant
In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant is a speech sound that is produced without turbulent airflow in the vocal tract. Essentially this means a sound that's "squeezed out" (like /z/) or "spat out" (like /t/) is not a sonorant...
Read the full article…

Role and reference grammar
Role and Reference Grammar (RRG) is a model of grammar developed by William Foley and Robert Van Valin, Jr. in the 1980s, which incorporates many of the points of view of current functional grammar theories...
Read the full article…

Principles and parameters
Principles and parameters is a framework in generative linguistics. Principles and parameters was largely formulated by the linguists Noam Chomsky and Howard Lasnik, though it was the culmination of the research of many linguists...
Read the full article…

Lexical functional grammar
Lexical functional grammar (LFG) is a grammar framework in theoretical linguistics, a variety of generative grammar. The development of the theory was initiated by Joan Bresnan and Ronald Kaplan in the 1970s, in reaction to the direction research in the area of transformational grammar had begun to take...
Read the full article…

International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet, devised by the International Phonetic Association as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language...
Read the full article…

History of linguistics
Linguistics as a study endeavors to describe and explain the human faculty of language...
Read the full article…

Generalised phrase structure grammar
Generalised phrase structure grammar (GPSG) is a framework for describing the syntax and semantics of natural languages. GPSG was initially developed in the late 1970s by Gerald Gazdar. Other contributors include Ewan Klein, Ivan Sag, and Geoffrey Pullum...
Read the full article…

Continuant
A continuant is a sound produced with an incomplete closure of the vocal tract. That is, any sound except a stop (plosive or nasal). An affricate is considered to be a complex segment, composed of both a stop and a continuant...
Read the full article…

Voiceless apicoalveolar fricative
The voiceless alveolar fricatives are consonantal sounds. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents these sounds depends on whether a sibilant or non-sibilant fricative is being described...
Read the full article…

Vocal tract
The vocal tract is that cavity in animals and humans, where sound that is produced at the sound source (larynx in mammals; syrinx in birds) is filtered. In birds it consists of the trachea, the syrinx, the oral cavity, the upper part of the esophagus, and the beak...
Read the full article…

Stress
In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word. The term is also used for similar patterns of phonetic prominence inside syllables. The word accent is sometimes also used with this sense...
Read the full article…

Prosodic unit
In linguistics, a prosodic unit, often called an intonation unit or intonational phrase, is a segment of speech that occurs with a single prosodic contour (pitch and rhythm contour). The abbreviation IU is preferred because of the negative connotations of "PU"...
Read the full article…

Phonotactics
Phonotactics (in Greek phone = voice and tactic = course) is a branch of phonology that deals with restrictions in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes. Phonotactics defines permissible syllable structure, consonant clusters, and vowel sequences by means of phonotactical constraints...
Read the full article…

Prosody
In linguistics, prosody (from Greek προσωδία) is the rhythm, stress, and intonation of speech. Prosody may reflect the emotional state of a speaker; whether an utterance is a statement, a question, or a command; whether the speaker is being ironic or sarcastic; emphasis, contrast and focus...
Read the full article…

Linguolabial consonant
Linguolabials or apicolabials are consonants articulated by placing the tongue tip or blade against the upper lip, which is drawn downward to meet the tongue. They represent one extreme of a coronal articulatory continuum which extends from linguolabial to sub-apical palatal places...
Read the full article…

Nasalization
In phonetics, nasalization is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the sound by the mouth...
Read the full article…

Intonation
In linguistics, intonation is variation of pitch whilst speaking which is not used to distinguish words. (Compare tone.) Intonation and stress are two main elements of linguistic prosody...
Read the full article…

Lateral consonant
Laterals are "L"-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue...
Read the full article…

Word
A word is a unit of language that carries meaning and consists of one or more morphemes which are linked more or less tightly together, and has a phonetic value. Typically a word will consist of a root or stem and zero or more affixes...
Read the full article…

Generative linguistics
Generative linguistics is a school of thought within linguistics that makes use of the concept of a generative grammar. The term "generative grammar" is used in different ways by different people, and the term "generative linguistics" therefore has a range of different, though overlapping, meanings...
Read the full article…

Morphophonology
Morphophonology (also morphophonemics, morphonology) is a branch of linguistics which studies - The phonological structure of morphemes...
Read the full article…

Coronal consonant
Coronal consonants are articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue. Only the coronal consonants can be divided into apical (using the tongue tip), laminal (using the tongue blade), domed (with the tongue bunched up), or sub-apical...
Read the full article…

English phonology
English phonology is the study of the phonology (i.e. the sound system) of the English language. Like all languages, spoken English has wide variation in its pronunciation both diachronically and synchronically from dialect to dialect. This variation is especially salient in English, because the language is spoken over such a wide territory...
Read the full article…

Consonant
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the upper vocal tract, the upper vocal tract being defined as that part of the vocal tract that lies above the larynx. Consonants contrast with vowels...
Read the full article…

Clause
In grammar, a clause is a pair of words or group of words that consists of a subject and a predicate, although in some languages and some types of clauses, the subject may not appear explicitly as a noun phrase...
Read the full article…

Cherology
Cherology (from Greek: χείρ, "hand") is the sign-language equivalent of phonology. It is cognitively equivalent to the phonology of oral languages. The term is not widely used in the academic literature...
Read the full article…

Absolute neutralisation
In phonology, absolute neutralisation is a phenomenon in which a segment of the underlying representation of a morpheme is not realized in any of its phonetic representation. For example, Chomsky & Halle (1968) assume that the underlying representation of the word ellipse contains a final segment /e/ even though this segment is never pronounced...
Read the full article…

Computational linguistics
Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the statistical and/or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective. This modeling is not limited to any particular field of linguistics. Traditionally, computational linguistics was usually performed by computer scientists who had specialized...
Read the full article…

Ingressive speech
Ingressive speech (IS) is when sounds are articulated with the flow of air in opposition to the flow that would be experienced during normal speech. The air used to voice the speech will be drawn in rather than pushed out. Ingressive speech can be either glottal, veleric or pulmonic...
Read the full article…

Egressive
In human speech, egressive sounds are those in which the air stream is created by pushing air out through the mouth or nose. The three types of egressive sounds are pulmonic egressive (exhaled), glottalic egressive, lingual egressive...
Read the full article…

Retroflex consonant
In phonetics, retroflex consonants are consonant sounds used in some languages. (They are sometimes referred to as cerebral consonants, especially in indology.) The tongue is placed behind the alveolar ridge, and may even be curled back to touch the palate...
Read the full article…

Initiation
In phonetics, the airstream mechanism is the method by which airflow is created in the vocal tract. Along with phonation, it is one of two mandatory aspects of sound production; without these, there can be no speech sound...
Read the full article…

Sibilant consonant
A sibilant is a type of fricative or affricate consonant, made by directing a jet of air through a narrow channel in the vocal tract towards the sharp edge of the teeth...
Read the full article…

Interjection
An interjection is a part of speech that usually has no [grammatical] connection with the rest of the sentence and simply expresses emotion on the part of the speaker, although most interjections have clear definitions. Filled pauses such as uh, er, um, are also considered interjections...
Read the full article…

Vocal folds
The vocal folds, also known commonly as vocal cords, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally across the larynx. They vibrate, modulating the flow of air being expelled from the lungs during phonation...
Read the full article…

Epiglotto-pharyngeal consonant
An epiglotto-pharyngeal consonant is a newly reported type of consonant, articulated with the epiglottis against the back wall of the pharynx. This contrasts with the pharyngeal consonants, where the root of the tongue contacts the back wall of the pharynx, and prototypical epiglottal consonants...
Read the full article…

Phonation
Phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics. Among some phoneticians, phonation is the process by which the vocal folds produce certain sounds through quasi-periodic vibration. This is the definition used among those who study laryngeal anatomy and physiology and speech production in general...
Read the full article…

Stylistics
Stylistics is the study of varieties of language whose properties position that language in context. For example, the language of advertising, politics, religion, individual authors, etc., or the language of a period in time, all are used distinctively and belong in a particular situation. In other words, they all have ‘place’ or are said to use a particular 'style'...
Read the full article…

Linguistic prescription
In linguistics, prescription can refer both to the codification and the enforcement of rules governing how a language is to be used. These rules can cover such topics as standards for spelling and grammar or syntax; or rules for what is deemed socially or politically correct...
Read the full article…

Functional grammar
Functional Grammar is a model of grammar motivated by functions. The model was originally developed by Simon C. Dik at the University of Amsterdam in the 1970s, and has undergone several revisions ever since. The latest standard version under the original name is laid out in the two-volume 1997 edition, published shortly after Dik's tragic death of cancer. The latest incarnation features the expansion of the model with a pragmatic/interpersonal module by Kees Hengeveld and Lachlan Mackenzie...
Read the full article…

Applied linguistics
Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field of study that identifies, investigates, and offers solutions to language-related real life problems. Some of the academic fields related to applied linguistics are education, linguistics, psychology, anthropology, and sociology...
Read the full article…

Morphological dictionary
In the field of computational linguistics, a morphological dictionary is a file that contains correspondences between surface form and lexical forms of words. Surface forms of words are those found in any text. The corresponding lexical form of a surface form is the lemma followed by grammatical information...
Read the full article…

Pharyngealization
Pharyngealization is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx or epiglottis is constricted during the articulation of the sound. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, pharyngealization can be indicated by one of two methods...
Read the full article…

Null subject language
In linguistic typology, a null subject language is a language whose grammar permits an independent clause to lack an explicit subject. Such a clause is then said to have a null subject. Typically, null subject languages express person, number, and/or gender agreement...
Read the full article…

Labialisation
Labialisation is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages. Labialized sounds involve the lips while the remainder of the oral cavity produces another sound. The term is normally used to refer to consonants. When vowels involve the lips, they are usually called rounded...
Read the full article…

Palatalization
Palatalization or palatalisation generally refers to two phenomena: As a process or the result of a process, the effect that front vowels and the palatal approximant [j] frequently have on consonants...
Read the full article…

Syllable
A syllable (Greek: συλλαβή) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. For example, the word water is composed of two syllables: wa and ter...
Read the full article…

Pharynx
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to (behind) the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the oesophagus, larynx, and trachea...
Read the full article…

Voice
Voice or voicing is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds, with sounds described as either voiceless (unvoiced) or voiced. The term, however, is used to refer to two separate concepts. Voicing can refer to the articulatory process in which the vocal cords vibrate...
Read the full article…

Implosive consonant
Implosive consonants are stops (rarely affricates) with a mixed glottalic ingressive and pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism. That is, the airstream is controlled by moving the glottis downward in addition to expelling air from the lungs...
Read the full article…

Aryepiglottic fold
The entrance of the larynx is a triangular opening, wide in front, narrow behind, and sloping obliquely downward and backward. It is bounded, in front, by the epiglottis; behind, by the apices of the arytenoid cartilages, the corniculate cartilages, and the interarytenoid notch...
Read the full article…

Generative grammar
In theoretical linguistics, generative grammar refers to a particular approach to the study of syntax. A generative grammar of a language attempts to give a set of rules that will correctly predict which combinations of words will form grammatical sentences...
Read the full article…

Schwa
In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa can mean the following: An unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound in any language, often but not necessarily a mid-central vowel. Such vowels are often transcribed with the symbol <ə>...
Read the full article…

Obstruent
In phonetics, articulation may be divided into two large classes, obstruents and sonorants. An obstruent is a consonant sound formed by obstructing outward airflow, causing increased air pressure in the vocal tract...
Read the full article…

Palate
The palate (pronounced /ˈpælɨt/) is the roof of the mouth in humans and vertebrate animals. It separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity. The palate is divided into two parts, the anterior bony hard palate, and the posterior fleshy soft palate or velum...
Read the full article…

Labiodental consonant
In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth. The labiodental consonants identified by the International Phonetic Alphabet are...
Read the full article…

Labial consonant
Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). English [m] is a bilabial nasal sonorant, [b] and [p] are bilabial stops (plosives), [v] and [f] are labiodental fricatives...
Read the full article…

Epiglottal consonant
An epiglottal consonant is a consonant that is articulated with the aryepiglottic folds against the epiglottis. They are occasionally called aryepiglottal consonants. The epiglottal consonants identified by the International Phonetic Alphabet are...
Read the full article…

Radical consonant
Radical consonants are those consonants articulated with the root (base) of the tongue in the throat. They include the pharyngeal and epiglottal places of articulation. The term radical was coined to help disambiguate pharyngeal, which had come to mean any consonant articulated in the throat, whether the articulator was the back of the tongue ("high" pharyngeals) or the epiglottis ("low" pharyngeals)...
Read the full article…

Velarization
Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, velarization is transcribed by one of three diacritics...
Read the full article…

Uvular consonant
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. Uvulars may be plosives, fricatives, nasal stops, trills, or approximants, though the IPA does not provide a separate symbol for the approximant, and the symbol for the voiced fricative is used instead...
Read the full article…

Velar consonant
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum)...
Read the full article…

Palatal consonant
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). Consonants with the tip of the tongue curled back against the palate are called retroflex...
Read the full article…

Glottal consonant
Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. Many phoneticians consider them, or at least the so-called fricatives, to be transitional states of the glottis without a point of articulation as other consonants have; in fact, some do not consider them to be consonants at all...
Read the full article…

Bilabial consonant
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. The bilabial consonants identified by the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) are...
Read the full article…

Laminal consonant
A laminal consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the blade of the tongue, which is the flat top front surface just behind the tip of the tongue. This contrasts with apical consonants, which are produced by creating an obstruction with the tongue apex (tongue tip) only. This distinction applies only to coronal consonants, which use the front of the tongue...
Read the full article…

Dorsal consonant
Dorsal consonants are articulated with the mid body of the tongue (the dorsum). They contrast with coronal consonants articulated with the flexible front of the tongue, and radical consonants articulated with the root of the tongue...
Read the full article…

Manner of articulation
In linguistics (articulatory phonetics), manner of articulation describes how the tongue, lips, jaw, and other speech organs are involved in making a sound make contact. Often the concept is only used for the production of consonants. For any place of articulation, there may be several manners, and therefore several homorganic consonants...
Read the full article…

Discourse analysis
Discourse analysis (DA), or discourse studies, is a general term for a number of approaches to analyzing written, spoken or signed language use. The objects of discourse analysis—discourse, writing, talk, conversation, communicative event, etc.—are variously defined in terms of coherent sequences of sentences, propositions, speech acts or turns-at-talk...
Read the full article…

Apical consonant
An apical consonant is a phone (speech sound) produced by obstructing the air passage with the apex of the tongue (i.e. the tip of the tongue). This contrasts with laminal consonants, which are produced by creating an obstruction with the blade of the tongue (which is just behind the apex)...
Read the full article…

Morphology
Morphology is the field of linguistics that studies the internal structure of words. (Words as units in the lexicon are the subject matter of lexicology.) While words are generally accepted as being (with clitics) the smallest units of syntax, it is clear that in most (if not all) languages, words can be related to other words by rules...
Read the full article…

Formal grammar
In formal semantics, computer science and linguistics, a formal grammar (also called formation rules) is a precise description of a formal language – that is, of a set of strings over some alphabet. In other words, a grammar describes which of the possible sequences of symbols (strings) in a language constitute valid words or statements in that language, but it does not describe their semantics...
Read the full article…

Stop consonant
A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. The terms plosive and stop are usually used interchangeably, but they are not perfect synonyms. Plosives are stops with a pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism. The term is also used to describe oral (non-nasal) stops...
Read the full article…

Transcription
Transcription is the conversion into written, typewritten or printed form, of a spoken language source, such as the proceedings of a court hearing. It can also mean the conversion of a written source into another medium, such as scanning books and making digital versions. A transcriptionist is a person who performs transcription...
Read the full article…

Sub-apical consonant
A sub-apical consonant is a consonant made by contact with the underside of the tip of the tongue. The only common sub-apical articulations are in the postalveolar to palatal region; these are called "retroflex"...
Read the full article…

Historical linguistics
Historical linguistics (also called diachronic linguistics) is the study of language change. It has five main concerns:
-
to describe and account for observed changes in particular languages;
- to reconstruct the pre-history of languages and determine their relatedness, grouping them into language families (comparative linguistics);
- to develop general theories about how and why language changes...
Read the full article…

Language acquisition
Language acquisition is the study of the processes through which learners acquire language. First Language Acquisition studies the infants' acquisition of their native language, whereas Second Language Acquisition deals with acquisition of additional languages in both children and adults...
Read the full article…

Allophone
In phonetics, an allophone is one of several similar speech sounds (phones) that belong to the same phoneme. A phoneme is an abstract unit of speech sound that can distinguish words...
Read the full article…

Semiotics
Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of sign processes (semiosis), or signification and communication, signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. It includes the study of how meaning is constructed and understood...
Read the full article…

Phonemic orthography
A phonemic orthography is a writing system where the written graphemes correspond to phonemes, the spoken sounds of the language. These are sometimes termed true alphabets, but non-alphabetic writing systems like syllabaries can be phonemic as well. Scripts with a good grapheme-to-phoneme correspondence include those of...
Read the full article…

Modality
In semiotics, a modality is a particular way in which the information is to be encoded for presentation to humans, i.e. to the type of sign and to the status of reality ascribed to or claimed by a sign, text or genre. It is more closely associated with the semiotics of Charles Peirce (1839-1914) than Saussure (1857-1913) because meaning is conceived as an effect of a set of signs...
Read the full article…

Semantics
Semantics is the study of meaning in communication. The word derives from Greek σημαντικός (semantikous), "significant", from σημαίνω (semaino), "to signify, to indicate" and that from σήμα (sema), "sign, mark, token". In linguistics it is the study of interpretation of signs as used by agents or communities within particular circumstances and contexts. It has related meanings in several other fields...
Read the full article…

Phonology
Phonology (word, speech, subject of discussion) is the systematic use of sound to encode meaning in any spoken human language, or the field of linguistics studying this use. Just as a language has syntax and vocabulary, it also has a phonology in the sense of a sound system. When describing the formal area of study, the term typically describes linguistic analysis either beneath the word...
Read the full article…

Syntax
In linguistics, syntax (from Ancient Greek συν- syn-, "together", and τάξις táxis, "arrangement") is the study of the principles and rules for constructing sentences in natural languages. In addition to referring to the discipline, the term syntax is also used to refer directly to the rules and principles that govern the sentence structure of any individual language, as in "the syntax of Modern Irish". Modern research in syntax attempts to describe languages in terms of such rules...
Read the full article…

Pragmatics
Pragmatics is the study of the ability of natural language speakers to communicate more than that which is explicitly stated. The ability to understand another speaker's intended meaning is called pragmatic competence. An utterance describing pragmatic function is described as metapragmatic. Another perspective is that pragmatics deals with the ways we reach our goal in communication...
Read the full article…

Grammar framework
In theoretical linguistics, the following fundamental approaches towards constructing grammar frameworks for natural languages are distinguished...
Read the full article…

Adaptive grammar
An adaptive grammar is a formal grammar that explicitly provides mechanisms within the formalism to allow its own production rules to be manipulated...
Read the full article…

Philosophy of language
Philosophy of language is the reasoned inquiry into the nature, origins, and usage of language. As a topic, the philosophy of language for Analytic Philosophers is concerned with four central problems: the nature of meaning, language use, language cognition, and the relationship between language and reality. For Continental philosophers, however, the philosophy of language tends to be dealt with, not as a separate topic, but as a part of Logic, History or Politics...
Read the full article…

Glossolalia
Glossolalia or speaking in tongues is the vocalizing of fluent speech; but unintelligible (not pre-cognitive) utterances, often as part of religious practice. Its use (including use in this article) also embraces Xenoglossy - speaking in a natural language that was previously unknown to the speaker...
Read the full article…

Text linguistics
Text linguistics is a branch of linguistics that deals with texts as communication systems. Its original aims lay in uncovering and describing text grammars. The application of text linguistics has, however, evolved from this approach to a point in which text is viewed in much broader terms that go beyond...
Read the full article…

Multilingualism
The term multilingualism can refer to an individual speaker who uses two or more languages, a community of speakers in which two or more languages are used, or speakers of different languages. Multilingual speakers outnumber monolingual speakers in the world's population...
Read the full article…

Phonological hierarchy
Phonological hierarchy describes a series of increasingly smaller regions of a phonological utterance. From larger to smaller units, it is as follows...
Read the full article…

Phonetics topics
- Acoustic phonetics
- Active articulator
- Affricate
- Airstream mechanism
Read the full article…

First language
A first language (also mother tongue, native language, arterial language, or L1) is the language a human being learns from birth. A person's first language is a basis for sociolinguistic identity...
Read the full article…

Written language
A written language is the representation of a language by means of a writing system. Written language is an invention in that it must be taught to children, who will instinctively learn or create spoken or gestural languages. A written language exists only as a complement to a specific spoken or gestural language, and no natural language is purely written. However, extinct languages may be in effect purely written when only their writings survive...
Read the full article…

Syllable weight
In linguistics, syllable weight is the concept that syllables pattern together according to the number and/or duration of segments in the rime. In classical poetry, both Greek and Latin, distinctions of syllable weight were fundamental to the meter of the line...
Read the full article…

Writing system
A writing system is a type of symbolic system used to represent elements or statements expressible in language...
Read the full article…

Formal language
A formal language is a set of words, i.e. finite strings of letters, or symbols. The inventory from which these letters are taken is called the alphabet over which the language is defined. A formal language is often defined by means of a formal grammar. Formal languages are a purely syntactical notion, so there is not necessarily any meaning associated with them. To distinguish the words that belong to a language from arbitrary words over its alphabet, the former are sometimes called well-formed words...
Read the full article…

Language
A language is a dynamic set of visual, auditory, or tactile symbols of communication and the elements used to manipulate them. Language can also refer to the use of such systems as a general phenomenon. Language is considered to be an exclusively human mode of communication; although other animals make use of quite sophisticated communicative systems, none of these are known to make use of all of the properties that linguists use to define language…
Read the full article…

Linguistics
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, encompassing a number of sub-fields. An important topical division is between the study of language structure (grammar) and the study of meaning (semantics). Grammar encompasses morphology (the formation and composition of words), syntax (the rules that determine how words combine into phrases and sentences) and phonology (the study of sound systems and abstract sound units)…
Read the full article…

International auxiliary language
An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) or interlanguage is a language meant for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. An auxiliary language is primarily a second language…
Read the full article…

Controlled natural language
Controlled natural languages (CNLs) are subsets of natural languages, obtained by restricting the grammar and vocabulary in order to reduce or eliminate ambiguity and complexity. Traditionally, controlled languages fall into two major types: those that improve readability for human readers (e.g. non-native speakers), and those that enable reliable automatic semantic analysis of the language…
Read the full article…

Grammar
Grammar is the field of linguistics that covers the rules governing the use of any given natural language. It includes morphology and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, phonology, semantics, and pragmatics…
Read the full article…

The Celebration of Linguistic Diversity
Our planet has over six billion people who speak between 6000 and 7000 different languages. A few languages are spoken by hundreds of millions of speakers, such as English or Chinese, but most are spoken by only a few thousand, or just a handful of speakers…
Read the full article…

The Linguistic Analysis in a Translation
Translation, as an activity, has been a task which has been performed for centuries. This is an activity whose main concern is to facilitate the communication process. The professional of translation reaches this goal by translating the information received in a foreign language into the language of the person who required his services, and vice versa…
Read the full article…

Linguistics and translation
Most linguistic theories involve several levels of analysis of text (I use text here to include transcriptions of speech). For example texts can be analysed from the point of view of phonology – the organised system of sounds in a language. They can be analysed from the point of view of morphology – the way that words in a language can be analysed into meaningful units (or not, as the case may be)…
Click here to view English version…
Cliquez ici pour voir ce version en Français…

Inttranews Special Report: Andrew Wedel, assistant professor of linguistics, University of Arizona
One of the most fascinating - and enduring - questions in linguistics is how language gets its structure: is this structure genetically determined, and innate, or does emerge over time under the influence of physical and social constraints on its use? The issue is not just an academic one: it has ramifications in fields as seemingly wide apart as primatology and artificial intelligence …
Read the full article…

"1992" versus "Loisaida" (a Linguistic Tour of the Lower East Side)
We keep hearing on all sides that in 1992 at least twelve nations of Europe will come together in a glorious embrace. Thanks to their impeccable culture and wisdom developed over the centuries, they will all get along perfectly and no longer have any need of such lesser domains as the Americas, Asia, or Africa. Together at last, this new European colossus will easily put such declining powers as the US or the USSR in their place …
Read the full article…

 

 



Submit your article!

Read more articles - Free!

Need translation jobs? Click here!

Translation agencies are welcome to register here - Free!

Freelance translators are welcome to register here - Free!

Subscribe to TranslationDirectory.com newsletter - Free!

Take part in TranslationDirectory.com poll - your voice counts!








 

Free Newsletter

Subscribe to our free newsletter to receive updates from us:

 

New at the Forum

Read Articles

# 2488
Rosetta Stone and Translation Rates

# 2467
Translation - an Ageless Profession

# 2466
Have Language, Will Travel

# 2486
Почему так мало хороших переводов и хороших переводчиков?

# 2479
Average monthly wage in different European countries

# 2487
Two New Chinese Translations of Hamlet Introduced and Compared

# 2475
Linguistic history of the Indian subcontinent

# 2474
Languages with official status in India

# 2251
The Database: Your Most Valuable Asset!

More articles
More articles for translators

Vote in Polls

All Polls:
Polls on all topics

Christian Polls:
Polls on Christian topics

Financial Polls:
Polls on Financial topics

Polls for Freelancers:

Poll # 104
Have you obtained at least one new client through your facebook account?

Poll # 100
What is the worst time-waster?

Poll # 099
If you work at a laptop, do you usually use touchpad or mouse?

Poll # 094
If you run a translation agency, do you ever outsource / subcontract your projects to other translation agencies?

Poll # 090
What do you like the most about TranslationDirectory.com?

Poll # 088
Which translation portal emails you the largest number of job notifications?

Poll # 087
Which one of the following sites has the most appealing color scheme?

Poll # 085
Do you charge a fine (interest) fee for every day of payment delay?

Poll # 083
Do you have licensed SDL Trados software installed at your computer?

Poll # 079
Have you always dreamt to become a translator?

Poll # 078
Do you plan to be a freelance translator for the rest of your life?

Poll # 077
Is it necessary to learn translation theory in order to become a good translator?

Poll # 076
Will human translation be entirely replaced by machine translation in the future?

Poll # 074
Do you have savings?

Poll # 065
Do you know that the Bible is the most popular book in the world?

Poll # 063
What is the purpose of your life?

Poll # 059
How many hours per night do you sleep (in average)?

More polls
More polls for freelancers


translation jobs
christianity portal


 

 
Copyright © 2003-2017 by TranslationDirectory.com
Legal Disclaimer
Site Map