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Articles for Translators and Translation Companies
Languages




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Tok Pisin
Tok Pisin is a creole language spoken throughout Papua New Guinea. It is an official language of Papua New Guinea and…
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Torres Strait Creole
Torres Strait Creole (also Torres Strait Pidgin, Yumplatok, Torres Strait Brokan/Broken, Cape York Creole, Lockhart Creole, Papuan Pidgin English, Broken English, Brokan/Broken, Blaikman, Big Thap) is an English-based creole language spoken on several Torres Strait Islands (Queensland, Australia)…
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Trinidadian Creole
Trinidadian Creole is a creole language commonly spoken throughout Trinidad. It is distinct from Tobagonian Creole – particularly at the basilectal level – and from other Lesser Antillean English creoles…
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Sranan Tongo
Sranan (also Sranan Tongo or Sranantongo "Surinamese tongue", Surinaams, Surinamese, Suriname Creole, Taki Taki) is a creole language spoken as…
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Singlish
Colloquial Singaporean English, better known as Singlish, is an English-based creole language spoken in Singapore.…
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Liberian Kreyol language
Kreyol (Liberian Pidgin English, Vernacular Liberian English) is an English-based pidgin spoken in Liberia. It was spoken by 1,500,000 people as a second language (1984 census) which is about 70% of the population in that time…
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Krio language
Sierra Leonean Creole or Krio is the lingua franca and the de facto national language spoken throughout the West African nation of Sierra Leone…
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Jamaican Patois
Jamaican Patois, known locally as Patois (Patwa or Patwah) and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English-based creole language with West African influences (a majority of loan words of Akan origin)…
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Bahamian Creole
Bahamianese or Bahamian Dialect is an English-based creole language spoken by approximately 400,000 people in the Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands…
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Hawaiian Pidgin
Hawaiian Pidgin English, Hawaiian Creole English, HCE, or locally known as simply Pidgin, is a creole languagebased in part on English – spoken by many residents of Hawaii…
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Guyanese Creole
Guyanese Creole (Creolese by its speakers: or simply Guyanese) is an English-based creole language spoken by people in Guyana. Linguistically, it is similar to other English dialects of the Caribbean region…
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Gullah language
Gullah (also called Sea Island Creole English and Geechee) is a creole language spoken by the Gullah people (also called «Geechees» within the community), an African-American population living on…
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Bajan Creole
Bajan (/ˈbeɪdʒən/) is an English-based creole language spoken on the Caribbean island of Barbados. In general, the people of Barbados speak standard English on TV and radio, in courthouses…
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Bislama
Bislama (English /ˈbɪsləmɑː/; Bislama: [bislaˈma]; also known under its earlier name in French Bichelamar [biʃlamaʁ]) is a creole language, one of the official languages of Vanuatu…
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Belizean Creole
Belize Kriol English (also Kriol or Belizean Creole) is an English-based creole language closely related to Miskito Coastal Creole, Jamaican Patois, San Andrés-Providencia Creole, Bocas del Toro Creole, Colón Creole, Rio Abajo Creole and Limón Coastal Creole…
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Antillean Creole French
Antillean Creole is a French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles. Its grammar and vocabulary include elements of Carib and African languages...
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Old Church Slavonic
Old Church Slavonic, also known as Old Church Slavic (often abbreviated to OCS; self-name словѣ́ньскъ ѩзꙑ́къ,slověnĭskŭ językŭ), was the first Slavic literary language…
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Montenegrin language
Montenegrin /ˌmɒntɪˈniːɡrɪn/ (crnogorski/црногорски) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian used byMontenegrins and the official language of Montenegro. Standard Montenegrin is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian, more specifically on Eastern Herzegovinian, which is also the basis of Standard Croatian, Serbian, and Bosnian…
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Kashubian language
Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian: kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-słowińskô mòwa; Polish: język kaszubski, język pomorski, język kaszubsko-słowiński) is one of the Lechitic languages, a subgroup of the Slavic languages…
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Upper Sorbian language
Upper Sorbian (Hornjoserbšćina, German: Obersorbisch) is a minority language spoken by Sorbs in Germany in the historical province of Upper Lusatia (Hornja Łužica in Sorbian), which is today part of Saxony. It is grouped in the West Slavic language branch, together with Lower Sorbian, Czech, Polish, Slovak and Kashubian…
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Lower Sorbian language
Lower Sorbian (Dolnoserbski) is a Slavic minority language spoken in eastern Germany in the historical province of Lower Lusatia, today part of Brandenburg. It is one of the two literary Sorbian languages, the other being Upper Sorbian…
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Belarusian language
Belarusian (/bɛləˈruːsiən/; беларуская мова, Belarusian pronunciation: [bʲelaˈruskaja ˈmova], BGN/PCGN: byelaruskaya mova) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, chiefly in Russia, Ukraine, and Poland…
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Rusyn language
Rusyn /ˈruːsɨn/ (Rusyn: русиньска бесїда or русиньскый язык), also known in English as Ruthene UK /rʊˈθiːn/US /ruːˈθiːn/ (sometimes Ruthenian), is an East Slavic language variety spoken by the Rusyns of Eastern Europe…
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Sardinian language
Sardinian (sardu, limba / lingua sarda) is a Romance language spoken on three-quarters of the island of Sardinia (Italy)…
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Romansh language
Romansh (also spelled Romansch, Rumantsch, or Romanche; Romansh: rumantsch, rumauntsch, romontsch, rumàntsch) is a Romance language spoken predominantly in the southeastern Swiss canton of Grisons(Graubünden), where it has official status alongside German and Italian and is used as the medium of instruction of schools in Romansh-speaking areas…
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Picard language
Picard is a language or a set of languages closely related to French, and as such is one of the larger group of Romance languages. It is spoken in two regions in the far north of France—Nord-Pas-de-Calais and Picardy—and in parts of the Belgian region of Wallonia…
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Occitan language
Occitan (English pronunciation: /ˈɒksɨtən, -tæn, -tɑːn/; Occitan: [utsiˈta]; French: [ɔksitɑ̃]), also known as lenga d’òc (Occitan: [ˈleŋɡɔ ˈðɔ(k)]; French: langue d’oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language…
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Norman language
Norman (Nourmaund, French: Normand, Guernésiais: Normand, Jèrriais: Nouormand) is a Romance language which can be classified as one of the Oïl languages along with Picard and Walloon. The name Norman-French is sometimes used to describe not only the Norman language, but also the administrative languages of Anglo-Norman and Law French used inEngland…
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Mirandese language
The Mirandese language (autonym: mirandés or lhéngua mirandesa; Portuguese: mirandês or língua mirandesa) is a Romance language belonging to the Astur-Leonese linguistic group, sparsely spoken in a small area of northeastern Portugal…
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Leonese language
The term Leonese (llionés), in the narrow sense described in this article, refers to certain vernacular Romance dialects which are spoken in northern and western portions of the historical region of León in Spain (modern provinces of León, Zamora, andSalamanca), and in a few adjoining areas in Portugal. In this narrow sense, Leonese is different from the dialects grouped under Asturian…
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Latin language
Latin (i/ˈlætɪn/; Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈliŋɡwa laˈtiːna]; the noun lingua, “tongue” and “language”, and the adjective latinus, latina and latinum in its three genders, “Latin”) is an ancient Italic language originally spoken by the Italic Latins in Latiumand Ancient Rome…
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Ladin language
Ladin (Ladin: Ladin, Italian: Ladino, German: Ladinisch) is a language consisting of a group of dialects (which some consider part of a unitary Rhaeto-Romance language) mainly spoken in the Dolomite Mountains in Northern Italy in South Tyrol, the Trentino and theprovince of Belluno. It is closely related to the Swiss Romansh and Friulian…
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Galician language
Galician (/ɡəˈlɪʃən/ or /ɡəˈlɪsi.ən/; galego [ɡaˈleɣo]) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch. It is spoken by some 3 million people, mainly in Galicia, an autonomous community located in northwestern Spain, where it is official along with Spanish…
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Friulian language
Friulian or Friulan (furlan (help·info) or affectionately marilenghe in Friulian, friulano in Italian, Furlanisch in German, furlanščina inSlovene; also Friulian), is a Romance language belonging to the Rhaeto-Romance family, spoken in the Friuli region of northeasternItaly. Friulian has around 300,000 speakers, the vast majority of whom also speak Italian. It is sometimes called Eastern Ladin, since it shares the same roots as Ladin...
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Franco-Provençal language
Franco-Provençal (Francoprovençal), Arpitan, or Romand (in Switzerland) (Vernacular: francoprovençâl, arpetan, patouès; Italian: francoprovenzale, arpitano; French: francoprovençal, arpitan, patois) is a Gallo-Romance language spoken in east-central France, western Switzerland, and northwestern Italy...
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Corsican language
Corsican (corsu or lingua corsa) is an Italo-Dalmatian Romance language spoken and written on the islands of Corsica (France) and northern Sardinia (Italy). Corsican was long the vernacular language alongside Italian, the official language in Corsica until 1859; afterwards Italian was replaced by French, owing to the acquisition of the island by France from Genoa in 1768…
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Asturian language
Asturian (/æsˈtʊəriən/; autonym: asturianu [astuˈɾjanu], or bable [ˈbaβle]) is a Romance language of the West Iberian group, Astur-Leonese subgroup, spoken in Asturias (Spain). Asturian is also known as Astur-Leonese or Asturian-Leonese to refer to the language in its historical and current global expansion…
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Aragonese language
Aragonese (/ˌærəɡɒˈniːz/; aragonés [aɾaɣoˈnes] in Aragonese) is a Romance language spoken by between 10,000 and 30,000 people throughout the valleys of the Pyrenees in Aragon, Spain, mainly in the comarcas of Somontano de Barbastro, Jacetania, Alto Gállego, Sobrarbe, and Ribagorza....
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Breton language
Breton /ˈbrɛtən/ (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken in Brittany (Breton: Breizh; French: Bretagne), France. Breton is a Brittonic languagebrought from Great Britain to Armorica by migrating Britons during the Early Middle Ages; it is thus an Insular Celtic language and not closely related to the Gaulish language. Breton is most closely related to Cornish, as both are Southwestern Brittonic languages. Welsh and the extinct Cumbric are the more distantly-related Brittonic languages....
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Tironian notes
Tironian notes (notae Tironianae) is a system of shorthand said to have been invented by Cicero's scribe Marcus Tullius Tiro. Tiro's system consisted of about 4,000 signs, somewhat extended in classical times to 5,000 signs. In the European Medieval period, Tironian notes were taught in monasteries and the system was extended to about 13,000 signs...
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Gaelic type
Gaelic type (sometimes called Irish character, Irish type, or Gaelic script) is a family of insular typefaces devised for printing Irish. It was widely used from the 16th until the mid-20th centuries but is today rarely used. Sometimes all Gaelic typefaces are called Celtic or uncial, though most Gaelic types are not uncials...
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Indo-Pacific languages
Indo-Pacific is a hypothetical language macrofamily proposed in 1971 by Joseph Greenberg. Supporters see it as an extremely ancient and internally diverse family. It would group into a single language family the Papuan languages of New Guinea and Melanesia, and also includes the languages of the Andaman Islands and the languages of Tasmania, both of which are remote from New Guinea...
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Indo-Aryan languages
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent, spoken largely by Indo-Aryan people. They constitute a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages, itself a branch of the Indo-European language family. Indo-Aryan speakers form about one half of all Indo-European speakers...
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Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni
Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni are considered to form (part of) an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggesting that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion...
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Indus script
The term Indus script (also Harappan script) refers to short strings of symbols associated with the Indus Valley Civilization, in use during the Mature Harappan period, between the 26th and 20th centuries BC...
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Kharosthi script
The Kharoṣṭhī script is an ancient Indic script used by the Gandhara culture of ancient Northwest India (primarily modern-day Afghanistan, Pakistan and North India) to write the Gāndhārī language (a dialect of Prakrit) and the Sanskrit language...
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Gupta script
The Gupta script (sometimes referred to as Gupta Brahmi Script or Late Brahmi Script) was used for writing Sanskrit and is associated with the Gupta Empire of India which was a period of material prosperity and great religious and scientific developments. The Gupta script was descended from Brahmi and gave rise to the Nagari, Sharada and Siddham scripts...
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Brahmi script
Brāhmī is the modern name given to the one of the oldest scripts used on the Indian Subcontinent and in Central Asia, during the final centuries BCE and the early centuries CE. Like its contemporary, Kharoṣṭhī, which was used in what is now Afghanistan, Pakistan and North India, Brahmi was an abugida. The best-known Brahmi inscriptions are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka in north-central India, dated to 250-232 BCE...
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Brahmic family
The Brāhmīc scripts are a family of abugida writing systems. They are used throughout South Asia (including Pakistan and Afghanistan), Southeast Asia, and parts of Central and East Asia, and are descended from the Brāhmī script of the ancient India...
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Prakrit
Prakrit (also transliterated as Pracrit) (Sanskrit: prākṛta प्राकृत, Shauraseni:pāuda पाउद, Maharashtri:pāua पाउअ) is the name for a group of Middle Indo-Aryan languages, derived from dialects of Old Indo-Aryan languages...
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The Pali language
Pali (also Pāḷi) is a Middle Indo-Aryan language that is in the Prakrit language group and was indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. It is a dead language that is widely studied because it is the language of many of the earliest extant Buddhist scriptures as collected in the Pāḷi Canon, or Tipitaka, and it is the liturgical language of Theravada Buddhism...
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List of languages by number of native speakers in India
India is home to several hundred languages. Most Indians speak a language belonging to the families of the Indo-Aryan branch of Indo-European (ca.74%), the Dravidian (ca. 24%), the Austroasiatic (Munda) (ca. 1.2%), or the Tibeto-Burman (ca. 0.6%), with some languages of the Himalayas still unclassified. The SIL Ethnologue lists 415 living languages for India...
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Linguistic history of the Indian subcontinent
The languages of India are divided into two large groups, the Indo-Aryan languages and the Dravidian languages, with a smaller number of languages belonging to unrelated phyla such as Tibeto-Burman. Linguistic records begin with the appearance of the Brāhmī script from about the 6th century BCE...
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Languages with official status in India
The central level official language of the Republic of India is Hindi in the Devanagari script and English. Each Indian state can legislate its own official language. Hindi is a major language spoken by nearly 40 percent of Indians and no other language is spoken by more than 10% of the population of India. English, widely used in business and politics, was retained for official use for the convenience of non Hindi speakers...
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Siddhaṃ alphabet
Siddhaṃ (Sanskrit सिद्धं, “accomplished” or “perfected”; Tibetanསིད་དྷཾ།; Chinese: 悉曇文字; pinyin: Xītán wénzi; Japanese: 梵字, bonji; Middle Chinese (Baxter-Sagart): sit-dom mjun-dziH), also known in its later evolved form as Siddhamātṛkā, is the name of a North Indian script used for writing Sanskrit...
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Substratum in Vedic Sanskrit
Vedic Sanskrit has a number of linguistic features which are alien to most other Indo-European languages. Prominent examples include: phonologically, the introduction of retroflexes, which alternate with dentals; morphologically, the formation of gerunds; and syntactically, the use of a quotative marker ("iti"). Such features, as well as the presence of non-Indo-European vocabulary, are attributed to a local substratum of languages encountered by Indo-Aryan peoples in Central Asia and within the Indian subcontinent...
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Languages of India
The Languages of India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 74% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 23% of Indians. Other languages spoken in India belong to the Austroasiatic, Tibeto-Burman, and a few minor language families and isolates....
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Sanskrit grammar
The grammar of the Sanskrit language has a complex verbal system, rich nominal declension, and extensive use of compound nouns. It was studied and codified by Sanskrit grammarians from the later Vedic period (roughly 8th century BC), culminating in the Pāṇinian grammar of the 4th century BC...
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Sanskrit
Sanskrit is a historical Indo-Aryan language, the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and a literary and scholarly language in Buddhism and Jainism. Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...
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Vedic Sanskrit
Vedic Sanskrit is an Old Indo-Aryan language. It is an archaic form of Sanskrit, an early descendant of Proto-Indo-Iranian. It is closely related to Avestan, the oldest preserved Iranian language. Vedic Sanskrit is the oldest attested language of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European family...
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How to say hello in different languages
Acknowledge that the mostly-universal, non-verbal way to greet others is a simple handshake or wave in the English-speaking world. However, other gestures such as various forms of bowing, embraces, or even applause are used as non-verbal greetings in other parts of the world. Always make sure you are not insulting anyone with uncommon gestures in that particular country...
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Words of Greek Origin
Greek is undoubtedly a language of special importance that has been used for centuries to express and refine philosophical and scientific concepts. It is not by chance that the international scientific language has formed, and continues to form, many of its terms by borrowing Greek root words. While all languages lend and borrow words, it appears that the Greek language has contributed an extraordinarily large number of important words of to modern languages...
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Dravidian languages
The Dravidian family of languages includes approximately 85 languages, spoken by around 200 million people. They are mainly spoken in southern India and parts of eastern and central India as well as in northeastern Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Iran, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia and Singapore. Among them Tamil, Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam are the members with the most speakers. There are also small groups of Dravidian-speaking scheduled tribes, who live beyond the mainstream communities...
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Proto-Dravidian language
Proto-Dravidian is the proto-language of the Dravidian languages. Proto-languages are, by definition, hypothetical languages reconstructed by linguists, and hence no proto-language has any historical record. So is the case with Proto-Dravidian...
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Tibeto-Burman languages
The Tibeto-Burman family of languages, often considered a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family, consists of languages spoken in various central, east, south and southeast Asian countries, including Burma (Myanmar), Tibet, northern Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, parts of southwest and central China (Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou and Hunan), northern mountains and middle hills of Nepal, eastern parts of Bangladesh (Chittagong Division), Bhutan, northern parts of Pakistan (Baltistan), and various regions of India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, the Ladakh and Kargil regions of Jammu and Kashmir, and North-East India)...
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Devanagari
Devanagari (pronounced /ˌdeɪvəˈnɑːɡəriː/; Hindustani: [d̪ʋˈnaːɡri]; देवनागरी Devanāgarī — compound of "Deva" (देव) the half-human/demi-divine and "nágari" (नगर) literally "to talk", or — dialect: “A dialect of Devas”), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, the name of its parent writing system), is an abugida alphabet of India and Nepal. It is written from left to right, does not have distinct letter cases, and is recognizable (along with most other North Indic scripts, with the Gujarati script being an exception) by a horizontal line that runs along the top of full letters...
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Brahmic family of scripts
The Brahmic or Indic scripts are a family of abugida (alphabetic-syllabary) writing systems. They are used throughout South Asia, Southeast Asia, and parts of Central and East Asia, and are descended from the Brāhmī script of the ancient Indian subcontinent. They are used by languages of several language families: Indo-European, Dravidian, Tibeto-Burman, Mongolic, Austro-Asiatic, Austronesian, Tai, and possibly influenced Korean (hangul). They were also the source of the dictionary order of Japanese kana...
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Nastaʿlīq script
Nastaʿlīq (also anglicized as Nastaleeq; نستعلیق nastaʿlīq) is one of the main script styles used in writing the Perso-Arabic script, and traditionally the predominant style in Persian calligraphy. It was developed in Iran in the 14th and 15th centuries. Although it is sometimes used to write Arabic-language text (where it is known as Taʿliq or Farsi and is mainly used for titles and headings), it has always been more popular in the Persian, Turkic, and South Asian spheres of influence...
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Middle Indo-Aryan languages
The Middle Indo-Aryan (Middle Indic) languages are the early medieval dialects of the Indo-Aryan languages, the descendants of the Old Indo-Aryan dialects such as Sanskrit, and the predecessors of the late medieval languages such as Apabhramsha or Abahatta, which eventually evolved into the contemporary Indo-Aryan languages, including Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu), Oriya, Bengali, and Punjabi...
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The most widely spoken languages in the world
The most widely spoken language and the countries they are spoken in. The scheme...
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The languages Olympics
The most widely spoken language in the world...
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Tocharian
Tocharian, or Tokharian, is one of the most obscure branches of the Indo-European languages and was only discovered by chance in archaeological expeditions to Chinese Turkestan in the early 20th century, when discoveries of amazing art treasures and ancient culture along the old silk road sparked great international interest in the area. Based on Old Turkic manuscripts which referred to these speakers as the "Twghry," they were labelled as the Tocharoi, a tribe mentioned in classical Greek writings as having lived in Bactria (eastern Iran and Afghanistan) during the second century after Christ...
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Maltese
It is the official language of Malta, and hence also one of the official languages of the European Union. It descends from Maghrebi Arabic and is the only Semitic language written with the Latin alphabet. It bears strong similarities to North African Arabic dialects. Malta may have been first visited by the Phoenicians, who probably found the island uninhabited but used it as a temporary docking station for their ships...
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Guarani
At around 3000BC there were three ethnic populations dominating in South America: the Andeans in the west, the Arawaks in the north, and the Tupi-Guarani, who probably had a greater population than the other two and who had great territorial extension. Apparently the Tupi-Guarani had emigrated from Central America, the Tupis continuing eastward and north up the Amazon, where they further developed the Tupis branch of the language...
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German Language and Nation - a Brief History
German is a member of the western branch of the Germanic family of languages, which in turn is part of the Indo-European language family.
There are 90 -120 million native German speakers around the world and, according to Guinness book of world records, most translations performed in the world are into and from German. 32% of the EU-15 countries say they can converse in it...

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Thai Translation
What are some pitfalls to avoid, specific to Thai, a client should be aware of when translating into this language? In Thai: The passive voice is only used in a negative sense.
For example
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Turkish
Turkish grammar is monstrously complicated. In comparison, English grammar is a piece of cake. Native Turkish speakers may be verbally gifted, but not every native speaker can or should be a translator. It is imperative to find a qualified translator who is trained in language and writing skills
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Canadian French
What are some pitfalls specific to Canadian French a client should be aware of when translating into this language? French tends to be "wordier" than English. So the client can expect that a text will be longer in French than it was in English
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In Love with Words
I have often wondered if there are other people like me that sensually enjoy the single word, enjoy it like a pastry. I have been a translator for 40 years (subtitling for Swedish Television and doing literary translation) so I have had an ongoing love affair with words for many years now
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The Serbo-Croatian Language(s) Today
It has been stated that the difference between a language and a dialect can often be the matter of whether the language in question has an army or navy. While most linguists would cite numerous additional differences, all over the world are found ample examples of languages that intermingle with one and another and where the certainty of names and qualities are murky at best
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Finnish
Perhaps the most important pitfall the client should be aware of when translating a text into Finnish is this: the structure and the vocabulary in Finnish are different from the Indo-European languages. Many people do not even realize the structure is so much different. Finnish is not an Indo-European language but a Finno-Ugric language
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Sanskrit vs. European languages: The tie that binds east and west
Anyone who has studied languages knows that different languages can be surprisingly similar. For example, Spanish and Italian look very much alike on paper-if you know one of the languages, you can almost intuit the meaning of a sentence written in the other language
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The Irish Language
Long ago, Irish was spoken all across Ireland, and was even used as a literary language in parts of Scotland. Today, the language has diminished. It is commonly used in daily life in only a small portion of Ireland itself, a collection of counties known as the Gaeltachtaí
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The Italian Language
From a linguistic viewpoint Italian belongs to the group of Romance or Neo-latin languages, together which includes French, Spanish, Portuguese and Romanian. It is spoken mainly in Italy, but it is also one of the four official languages in Switzerland, in the Ticino and Grigioni Cantons, also known as Italian Switzerland
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Korean
Korean is the official language of North Korea and South Korea. It is also one of the two official languages in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in China. There are about 78 million Korean speakers
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Sign language
A sign language (also signed language) is a language which, instead of acoustically conveyed sound patterns, uses visually transmitted sign patterns (manual communication, body language and lip patterns) to convey meaning-simultaneously combining hand shapes, orientation and movement of the hands, arms or body, and facial expressions to express fluidly a speaker's thoughts
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Dutch
The first question a client should ask is "Who is my target audience?" There is Dutch for the Netherlands and Dutch for Belgium. Basically, the language is one and the same. We use the same dictionaries and grammar books, which cannot be said of American English and British English, for example. So a Flemish translator - Flemish refers to the people NOT the language - can translate for the entire Dutch-speaking community and vice versa
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The Hindi Language
When clients send documents over for translation, there are some translators who charge by the target word. Hindi expands to about 1.5 times the English in which case the client is stuck with having to pay much more than what was anticipated
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Japanese
What are some pitfalls specific to Japanese to avoid that a client should be aware of when translating into this language?
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The Spanish Language
After Mandarin Chinese, what do you think is the language with the world’s second-largest number of native speakers? If you guessed English, you’re wrong. English only takes the second-prize if you count the number of people who learned it as a second language
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Nordic Languages
The Danish, Swedish, Norwegian and Icelandic languages are collectively known as the Nordic languages. Since they are all descended from Old Norse, these languages have a lot in common…
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Languages in New Guinea
Which country has the highest number of different languages within its borders? Surprisingly, the answer is not China, India or any other large country. Tiny Papua New Guinea is all of 462,840 square kilometres in size, about as big as the state of California…
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Occidental language
The language Occidental, later Interlingue, is a planned language created by the Baltogerman naval officer and teacher Edgar de Wahl and published in 1922…
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The Basque Language
The Basque language, Euskera, is spoken by about a quarter of the people who live in the ancestral Basque region. Often derided by French and Spanish speakers as “incomprehensible,” the Basque language lives on nonetheless, and it is spoken fluently by just over 1 million people…
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The Hawaiian Language
When the Americans annexed Hawaii in 1898, English became the official language of the Hawaiian Islands. Unfortunately, the beautiful native Hawaiian language had been threatened since American and European businessmen developed an interest in the islands in the early 19th century…
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Swedish Translation
A translator translating from English to Swedish should be careful to use the right prepositions in Swedish. Typically, prepositions are among the hardest things to get right for non-native speakers, which is why it is important that only translators with Swedish as their native tongue should translate into Swedish…
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Future of English Language (Joke)
The European Commission has just announced an agreement whereby English will be the official language of the European Union rather than German, which was the other
possibility. As part of the negotiations, Her Majesty's Government conceded that English spelling had some room for improvement and has accepted a 5-year phase-in plan that would be known as "Euro-English"…

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The Cherokee Language
In parts of the United States today, including Tennessee, North Carolina, and Oklahoma, road signs are marked with unfamiliar symbols that don't correspond to English letters. Passing through these areas, you may wonder what the symbols mean…
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Russian
What are some pitfalls specific to Russian to avoid that a client should be aware of when translating into this language?…
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Tagalog: the Language of the Phillipines
The greatest pitfall with English-Tagalog translations involves the mistaken notion entertained by many clients that there is a Tagalog term for every English word or concept. Some clients may even insist that a Tagalog translation contain only "pure Tagalog" words…
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Why English is so hard to learn
If you ever feel stupid, then just read on. If you’ve learned to speak fluent English, you must be a genius! This little treatise on the lovely language I share is only for the brave. Peruse at your leisure, English lovers…
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"I love you" in various languages
Afrikaans - Ek het jou lief
Afrikaans - Ek is lief vir jou
Albanian - te dua
Albanian - te dashuroj
Alentejano (Portugal) - Gosto De Ti, Porra!…

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Translation Into French for France
What are some pitfalls specific to French to avoid that a client should be aware of when translating into this language? A client willing to translate materials into a foreign language is typically focusing on the linguistic aspect of the task. However, maximizing the impact of the message also requires finding the right tone for the intended audience…
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What is RTL?
RTL is the writing system known as right-to-left (RTL) in which script runs from the right-hand side of a page and concludes on the left-hand side, such as in Arabic, Hebrew and Urdu. As business development manager of a fast-growing regional company working in Middle Eastern languages on a daily basis, I will endeavor to give readers some basic information about these types of languages…
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Translating Kinship Terms to Malay
In the Malay culture, the kinship term is used as one of the forms of address when speaking to others, especially when speaking to family members and close, intimate friends. Using the correct and proper choice of kinship term is of utmost importance in this culture…
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Portuguese
For the next few months, McElroy will be running a series of articles that highlight some of the characteristics of top languages used in doing business globally. This month, we look at Portuguese, in an interview conducted with McElroy translator Clarissa Surek-Clark
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German (By McElroy Translation)
For the next few months, McElroy will be running a series of articles that highlight some of the characteristics of top languages used in doing business globally. This month, we look at German, in an interview conducted with McElroy Translator Gerhard Preisser…
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Expand your business, 300 million consumers are waiting for your products, services
Today 290 million people (consumers) speak Russian. Russian is the 4th World's Most Widely Spoken Language and the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia. As regards modern times, Russian is the 4th language in the frequency of use in the world today, which enables one to say that Russian is an international and a go-between language for ethnic communities…
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Bahasa Anyone?
Recently we have had a surge in requests for Indonesian and Malaysian for use in Bahasa. One of our Malaysian translators has provided clarification for our clients. "Bahasa" is not, in fact, another location or country, it simply means "language." Therefore, Bahasa Indonesia is Indonesian, and Bahasa Melayu is Malay
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Gender and Language
Most Western languages have some form of distinction between masculine and feminine nouns, with some of them adding neuter for good measure. Interestingly, the two non-Indo-European language groups of Europe—Finno-Ugric (Hungarian, Finnish, and Estonian) and Basque—have no grammatical genders. English has almost lost them when referring to inanimate objects, with the exception of the feminine sometimes used for vessels and other means of transportation (Fill 'er up!)
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The Languages of the Former Yugoslavia
Though the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia has ceased to exist, the ramifications of the tumultuous changes that occurred throughout the region in decades past continues even today. One aspect that continues to be a controversial and touchy subject in the region is the language. Today, many people find it difficult to understand the differences between Serbo-Croatian, Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian, Slovenian, Macedonian, Montenegrin, etc
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Chinese whispers: challenges of Chinese for localisation
Chinese is the world's most widely spoken language. Approximately 1.5 billion people around the globe speak one of its variants, yet it remains one of the languages about which people outside Greater China have remarkably little understanding
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L'Emprunt dans la traduction
La langue et la traduction sont des éléments importants qui animent la vie des différentes sociétés humaines. Elles sont intimement liées, évolutives et ont pour domaines communs la communication, l'échange d'idées, la diffusion et le brassage des cultures. Aussi, faut-il le souligner, la langue est le moteur de la traduction puisque sans elle la traduction n'a pas de valeur. Aujourd'hui, l'intensification des contacts entre les différents peuples pour des raisons économiques, politiques, techniques, scientifiques, sociales et culturelles a favorisé l'essor des langues, de la traduction et d'un autre phénomène linguistique, l'emprunt
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Bengali - One language, Multiple Variations
Bengali, also called Bangla, is the official language of Bangladesh, and the Indian States of West Bengal and Tripura. There are over 200 million native speakers of this language across the world and it has the pride of place as the 5th "most spoken" language in the world (after Mandarin, Spanish, English and Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu). Bengali is the second most commonly spoken language in India (after Hindi). Yet, interestingly, there are crucial differences between the spoken and written forms of the language between Bangladeshi Bengali (with intra-country variations) and Bengali spoken in West Bengal
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Canadian English
Canada has its own political, cultural, historical, and geographical realities and has its own words to describe these realities. It has two official languages, English and French. The English vocabulary used does not differ enormously from the vocabulary used in other parts of the world, but some words have different connotations in different English speaking countries. The bulk of the words used are common to all English speakers, but there are, a number of words that are peculiar to Canada
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The Spanish Reality in the United States – A Unique Challenge
The issue of the Spanish language in the United States is not an easy topic to approach. We need to bear in mind the diversity of Spanish in this country, as well as the need to establish a common denominator in this amazing melting pot. But there is more to it. Linguistic and cultural influences and the major repercussions of the use of Spanish in the media also play a critical role when it comes to US Spanish…
English Española Portuguese

Chinese Characters
An old American proverb states "The only history worth knowing is the one you do not already know." This outlook is quite evident as trade globalization rapidly unites people, cultures and languages between the East and West in gaining insights to form strategic business relationships. From afar, Chinese characters may seem like an insurmountable communication barrier, but once introduced to the socio-linguistic and political intricacies of the Chinese language, one will find both uniqueness and commonalities in comparison to one's own language and history. This survey will introduce the political, ethnic and cultural lineage of Chinese characters in East Asia and its impact on the modern online information realm…
English Portuguese

Mexican Spanish
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Macedonian
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Geographic Distribution
6. Character Set

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Khmer
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Geographic Distribution
5. Character Set

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Hindi
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Georgian
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Arabic
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Anglo-Saxon and Latinate Words
The English language is derived from a Germanic language – Old English (Anglo-Saxon). However, despite English’s clearly Germanic forms, structures and vocabulary, it also comprises a large number of Latinate and/or French words (being a Romance language, French is derived ultimately from Latin)
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Zulu
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Xhosa
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Measurements and Abbreviations
3. Hyphenation
4. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
5. Geographic Distribution
6. Character Set

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Welsh
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Vietnamese
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Urdu
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Ukrainian
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Turkish
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Traditional Chinese
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Thai
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Tagalog
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Swiss Italian
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Swiss German
Contents:
1. General note on Swiss German
2. Grammar and Spelling
3. Punctuation
4. Measurements and Abbreviations
5. Hyphenation
6. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
7. Geographic Distribution
8. Character Set

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Swiss French
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set
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Swedish
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set
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Southern Sesotho
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Measurements and Abbreviations
3. Hyphenation
4. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
5. Geographic Distribution
6. Character Set

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Slovene
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Geographic Distribution
6. Character Set

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Translating Pronouns and Proper Names: Indonesian versus English
This article presents the differences in the pronominal systems of the Indonesian and English languages, the secondary senses of certain pronouns in their use, and the ambiguities caused by culture-based given names. Detailed discussion of each is provided with some examples that commonly occur in written texts. Some ways on how to deal with these problems are also recommended in each topic discussed
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Slovak
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set
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Simplified Chinese
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set
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Serbian
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set
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Russian
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set
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How do we define a word that has no commonly understood meaning?
Bilingualism throughout the world is on the rise due to increased migration patterns across the globe. It has been estimated that around half the world's population is bilingual (Grosjean, 1982, in Karamat Ali, 2004). Interestingly, it has also been predicted that soon, "the speakers for whom English is a second or other language will outnumber the total for whom it is their first"
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Romanian
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set
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Punjabi
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set
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Portuguese
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Geographic Distribution
6. Character Set

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Polish
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Norwegian
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Malay
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Lithuanian
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Book review: "The Stories of English" by David Crystal
I had the good fortune to stumble across this wonderful book recently, and I found it both entertaining and informative.
As the title suggests, the book tells the various stories by which the English language has come to be what it is today. (It's as much about history and politics as it is about language)

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Latvian
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Latin American Spanish
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Korean
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Kazakh
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Geographic Distribution
6. Character Set

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Javanese
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Japanese
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Italian
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Icelandic
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Hungarian
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Hebrew
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Greek
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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German
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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French
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Flemish
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Finnish
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Farsi
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Estonian
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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British English
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Geographic Distribution

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Dutch
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Danish
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Czech
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Croatian
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Chilean Spanish
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Catalan
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Geographic Distribution
6. Character Set

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Canadian French
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Spanish
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Bulgarian
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set

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Brazilian Portuguese
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set
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Begin in English to End in Arabic
The discrepancy between the written form of a language and the pronounced form constitutes one of the major difficulties in learning languages. It was the work of linguistics to deal with the subject matter and discuss what might govern such discrepancy to determine the implied meaning of a form of speech. In Arabic, such a problem appears most problematic when Arabic is transcribed in Latin letters
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Bosnian
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set
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Belgian French
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set
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Austrian German
General note on Austrian German and German:
Austrian German adheres to the grammatical system of the German standard language and only differs in minor points, e.g. in some cases of plural formation.
Furthermore, in some cases, prepositions are used differently
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Argentinian Spanish
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set
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American English
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution

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Albanian
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set …
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Afrikaans
Contents:
1. Grammar and Spelling
2. Punctuation
3. Measurements and Abbreviations
4. Hyphenation
5. Miscellaneous Peculiarities
6. Geographic Distribution
7. Character Set …
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