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Bone Cancer Glossary





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Ablation
Removal or destruction of tissue.

Alkaline Phosphatase
An enzyme found in most tissues of the body which is released in larger quantities while bone is being formed.

Allograft
A bone graft which uses bone derived from a human other than the individual being treated by it.

Autograft
A bone graft which uses bone derived from the individual being treated by it.

Benign Tumor
Non-cancerous tumor.

Bisphosphonates
Drugs that can be used as a treatment to strengthen bones and reduce high levels of calcium in the blood.

Bone Biopsy
Test which utilizes a small sample of the patient’s bone to check for cancer and other bone disorders.

Bone Cancer
Cancer of the bones.

Bone Graft
A surgical procedure which replaces missing bone.

Bone Marrow
Soft spongy tissue found in the hollow part of the bone where red blood cells are produced.

Bone Marrow Aspiration
A procedure in which a small quantity of bone marrow fluid and cells are removed with a needle for examination by a pathologist.

Bone Metastases
A cluster of cancer cells from one area of the body that have spread and invaded the bone.

Bone Mets
Abbreviation of bone metastases.

Bone Pain Treatment
There are a variety of treatments for bone pain caused by bone metastases, including MR guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery (MRgFUS), bisphosphonates, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, radiation and ablation.

Bone Scan
A procedure used to diagnose bone diseases.

Bone Tumor
An abnormal tissue mass found in bone.

Clinical Trials
Research studies which test new treatment options. Learn about clinical trials for bone metastases.

Cortex
Compact part of the bone which provides the strength of the bone.

Dynamic Dosimetry
The continuous retrieval and display of thermal MR images and temperature data on the ExAblate workstation during sonication.

Endocortical Nerves
Nerve endings that innervate the bone cortex and periosteum.  

Focused Ultrasound Treatment for Bone Metastases
A non-invasive, outpatient procedure to treatment bone metastases which combines a high intensity focused ultrasound beam that heats and destroys targeted tissue and Magnetic Resonance Imaging system (MRI) which visualizes patient anatomy, and controls the treatment by continuously monitoring the tissue effect.

Fracture
Broken bone.

Joint
Where two bones connect.

Malignant Tumor
Cancerous tumor.

Metastases
Cancer cells that have spread to one or more sites elsewhere in the body, often by way of the lymph system or bloodstream.

Metastasis
Singular form or metastases.

Metastatic Bone Cancer
When cancer cells spread to the bones. This is different than primary bone cancer since the cancer started in a different part of the body, such as breast, prostate, etc.

Myeloma
Primary cancer of the plasma cells in the bone marrow

Osteoblastic Lesion
An abnormality where the bone is denser and thicker in certain areas. Osteoblastic bone lesions can occur in both malignant and benign tumors.

Osteoid Osteoma
A benign bone tumor, usually very painful.

Osteolysis
When the immune system tries reabsorbing bone.

Osteolytic Lesion
A "punched-out" area of severe bone loss. Osteolytic bone lesions are seen in metastatic lung and breast cancer and multiple myeloma and may cause bone pain, pathologic fractures (bones broken by disease), and hypercalcemia (high blood calcium).

Pain Palliation
Symptomatic relief of pain.

Peristoeum
Membrane that outlines the outer surface of all bone, except at the joints of long bones.

Primary Bone Cancer
Cancer that originated in the bone.

Reconstruction
Procedure to replace damaged bone.

Secondary Bone Cancer
Cancer that started in a different part of the body and then spread to the bone.

 





Published - March 2013






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