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Graphonomics Terminology Glossary

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terminology_in_graphonomics




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Allograph (handwriting)

Allography, from the Greek for "other writing", has several meanings which all relate to how words and sounds are written down.

An allograph may be the opposite of an autograph; that is, a person's words or name (signature) written by someone else.

Angular frequency

In physics, angular frequency ω (also referred to by the terms angular speed, radial frequency, circular frequency, orbital frequency, and radian frequency) is a scalar measure of rotation rate. Angular frequency (or angular speed) is the magnitude of the vector quantity angular velocity. The term angular frequency vector is sometimes used as a synonym for the vector quantity angular velocity.

One revolution is equal to 2π radians, hence

Angular frequency

where

ω is the angular frequency or angular speed (measured in radians per second),
T is the period (measured in seconds),
f is the ordinary frequency (measured in hertz),
v is the tangential velocity of a point about the axis of rotation (measured in meters per second),
r is the radius of rotation (measured in meters).

Ascender

In typography, an ascender is the portion of a minuscule letter in a Latin-derived alphabet that extends above the mean line of a font. That is, the part of a lower-case letter that is taller than the font's x-height.

Ascenders, together with descenders, increase the recognizability of words. For this reason, British road signs no longer use all capital letters.

Studies made at the start of the construction of the British motorway network concluded that mixed-case letters were much easier to read than "all-caps" and a special font was designed for motorway signs. These then became universal across the U.K.

Aspect ratio (image)

The aspect ratio of an image is the ratio of the width of the image to its height, expressed as two numbers separated by a colon. That is, for an x:y aspect ratio, no matter how big or small the image is, if the width is divided into x units of equal length and the height is measured using this same length unit, the height will be measured to be y units. For example, consider a group of images, all with an aspect ratio of 16:9. One image is 16 inches wide and 9 inches high. Another image is 16 centimeters wide and 9 centimeters high. A third is 8 yards wide and 4.5 yards high.

Ballistic stroke

In handwriting research, the concept of stroke is used in various ways. In engineering and computer science, there is a tendency to use the term stroke for a single connected component of ink (in Off-line handwriting recognition) or a complete pen-down trace (in on-line handwriting recognition). Thus, such stroke may be a complete character or a part of a character. However, in this definition, a complete word written as connected cursive script should also be called a stroke. This is in conflict with the suggested unitary nature of stroke as a relatively simple shape.

In the research field of handwriting motor control, the term ballistic stroke is used. It is defined as the trajectory segment between two consecutive minima in the absolute velocity of the pen tip. The time delay between the cortical brain command and a muscle contraction is so large that the 100 millisecond ballistic strokes need to be planned in advance by the brain, as feedback by hand-eye coordination requires a much slower movement than is the case in the normal handwriting process.

Base line

A baseline is a line that is a base for measurement or for construction.

Cursive script

Cursive (from Latin: cursivus meaning "flowing") is any style of handwriting that is designed for writing notes and letters quickly by hand. In the Arabic, Latin, and Cyrillic writing systems, the letters in a word are connected, making a word one single complex stroke.

In the United States of America, the name of "cursive" is most commonly used to describe this style of writing. In the United Kingdom, the phrase "joined up writing", "real writing" or "joint writing" is far more commonly used, while the term "running writing" or just "cursive" is most commonly used in Australia. Cursive is also commonly known as simply "handwriting" in Canada and New Zealand. Cursive is considered distinct from the so-called "printing" or "block letter" style of writing, in which the letters of a word are unconnected, and from "print-writing", which is a cross between cursive and printing, with some unconnected letters and some connected

Curvature

In mathematics, curvature refers to any of a number of loosely related concepts in different areas of geometry. Intuitively, curvature is the amount by which a geometric object deviates from being flat, or straight in the case of a line, but this is defined in different ways depending on the context. There is a key distinction between extrinsic curvature, which is defined for objects embedded in another space (usually an Euclidean space) in a way that relates to the radius of curvature of circles that touch the object, and intrinsic curvature, which is defined at each point in a Riemannian manifold. This article deals primarily with the first concept.

The canonical example of extrinsic curvature is that of a circle, which everywhere has curvature equal to the reciprocal of its radius. Smaller circles bend more sharply, and hence have higher curvature. The curvature of a smooth curve is defined as the curvature of its osculating circle at each point.

Curve

In mathematics, a curve (sometimes also called curved line) is, generally speaking, an object similar to a line but which is not required to be straight. This entails that a line is a special case of curve, namely a curve with null curvature. Often curves in two-dimensional (plane curves) or three-dimensional (space curves) Euclidean space are of interest.

Delayed stroke

The difference between on-line handwriting recognition and off-line handwriting recognition is that temporal information is present in the on-line pen-tip trajectory Xt,Yt. This means that the order of movements is contained with an on-line recording of handwriting on a Graphics Tablet. In handwriting recognition, the temporal information usually helps to disambiguate between characters that are touching in the image, but which are disparate in the temporal order.

Derivative

In calculus, a branch of mathematics, the derivative is a measure of how a function changes as its input changes. Loosely speaking, a derivative can be thought of as how much one quantity is changing in response to changes in some other quantity; for example, the derivative of the position of a moving object with respect to time is the object's instantaneous velocity. Conversely, the integral of the object's velocity over time is how much the object's position changes from the time when the integral begins to the time when the integral ends.

Descender

In typography, a descender is the portion of a letter in a Latin alphabet that extends below the baseline of a font.

For example, in the letter y, the descender would be the "tail," or that portion of the diagonal line which lies below the v created by the two lines converging. In the letter p at right, it is the stem reaching down past the o.

In most fonts, descenders are reserved for lowercase characters such as g, j, q, p, and y. Some fonts, however, also use descenders for some numerals (typically 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9). Such numerals are called old-style numerals. (Some italic fonts, such as Computer Modern italic, put a descender on the numeral 4 but not on any other numerals. Such fonts are not considered old-style.) Some fonts also use descenders for the tails on a few uppercase letters such as J and Q.

Digitizer

Digitizing or digitization is the representation of an object, image, sound, document or a signal (usually an analog signal) by a discrete set of its points or samples. The result is called digital representation or, more specifically, a digital image, for the object, and digital form, for the signal. Strictly speaking, digitizing means simply capturing an analog signal in digital form. For a document the term means to trace the document image or capture the "corners" where the lines end or change direction.

Downward stroke

* In handwriting, a downward stroke or downstroke is a ballistic stroke having a direction toward the feet and/or torso of the person.

* In guitar terminology, a downward stroke or downstroke (better known as downpicking) is a stroke moved in a downward motion, relative to the position of the instrument, against one or more of the strings to make them vibrate.

Extender

Ascender or descender, in typography and graphonomics

* In typography, an ascender is the portion of a minuscule letter in a Latin-derived alphabet that extends above the mean line of a font. That is, the part of a lower-case letter that is taller than the font's x-height.

* In typography, a descender is the portion of a letter in a Latin alphabet that extends below the baseline of a font. For example, in the letter y, the descender would be the "tail," or that portion of the diagonal line which lies below the v created by the two lines converging. In the letter p at right, it is the stem reaching down past the o.

Fluency (handwriting)

Graphonomics is the interdisciplinary field directed towards the scientific analysis of the handwriting process and the handwritten product. Researchers in handwriting recognition, forensic handwriting examination, kinesiology, psychology, computer science, artificial intelligence, paleography and neuroscience cooperate in order to achieve a better understanding of the human skill of handwriting. Research in graphonomics generally involves handwriting movement analysis in one form or another.

Fourier spectrum, Power-spectral density function

In statistical signal processing and physics, the spectral density, power spectral density (PSD), or energy spectral density (ESD), is a positive real function of a frequency variable associated with a stationary stochastic process, or a deterministic function of time, which has dimensions of power per Hz, or energy per Hz. It is often called simply the spectrum of the signal. Intuitively, the spectral density captures the frequency content of a stochastic process and helps identify periodicities.

Function (mathematics)

The mathematical concept of a function expresses the intuitive idea that one quantity (the argument of the function, also known as the input) completely determines another quantity (the value, or the output). A function assigns exactly one value to each input of a specified type. The argument and the value may be real numbers, but they can also be elements from any given sets: the domain and the codomain of the function. An example of a function with the real numbers as both its domain and codomain is the function f(x) = 2x, which assigns to every real number the real number with twice its value. In this case, it is written that f(5) = 10.

Graph (handwriting) - Graphonomics

Redirected from Graph (handwriting)

Graphonomics is the interdisciplinary field directed towards the scientific analysis of the handwriting process and the handwritten product. Researchers in handwriting recognition, forensic handwriting examination, kinesiology, psychology, computer science, artificial intelligence, paleography and neuroscience cooperate in order to achieve a better understanding of the human skill of handwriting. Research in graphonomics generally involves handwriting movement analysis in one form or another.

Grapheme

A grapheme (from the Greek: γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a fundamental unit in a written language. Examples of graphemes include alphabetic letters, Chinese characters, numerical digits, punctuation marks, and the individual symbols of any of the world's writing systems.

In a fully phonemic orthography, a grapheme corresponds to one phoneme. However this is very much the exception. In spelling systems that are to some extent non-phonemic, such as in English, multiple graphemes may represent a single phoneme. These are called digraphs (two graphemes for a single phoneme) and trigraphs (three graphemes). For example, the word ship contains four graphemes (s, h, i, and p) but only three phonemes, because sh is a digraph.

Guirland

Redirected from Guirland

Graphonomics is the interdisciplinary field directed towards the scientific analysis of the handwriting process and the handwritten product. Researchers in handwriting recognition, forensic handwriting examination, kinesiology, psychology, computer science, artificial intelligence, paleography and neuroscience cooperate in order to achieve a better understanding of the human skill of handwriting. Research in graphonomics generally involves handwriting movement analysis in one form or another.

Handwriting or Penmanship

Penmanship or handwriting is the art of writing with the hand and a writing instrument. Styles of handwriting are also called hands or scripts.

Horizontal progression

In Western handwriting, horizontal progression is the gradual movement from left to right during writing a line of text. In Hebrew and Arabic writing systems, the movement is from right to left.

Ligature

In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes are joined as a single glyph. Ligatures usually replace consecutive characters sharing common components and are part of a more general class of glyphs called "contextual forms" where the specific shape of a letter depends on context such as surrounding letters or proximity to the end of a line.

Lineation

In Western handwriting, the base line, the x-height or corpus size, the height of the ascenders and the bottom line of the descenders make up four horizontal (virtual) lines which represent the lineation of handwriting. In many teaching methods of writing at primary school, these guidelines are actually present on paper to aid the child in producing well-formed characters of the proper size. In adulthood the lineation remains, virtually, and can be used in handwriting recognition by performing an analysis of the horizontal density of minima and maxima of the writing trace. The density at the base line of handwriting will be highest, followed by the density of the corpus size. As ascenders and descenders occur only infrequently, their densities will be low, especially if a single word is considered.

Movement parameter

In kinesiology a Movement parameter is an adjustable scalar quantity to be specified in a motor system, i.e. movement-control system (See: kinesiology, graphonomics). Examples are: Velocity, Acceleration, Force, Stiffness.

Orientation

In mathematics, a positively oriented curve is a planar simple closed curve (that is, a curve in the plane whose starting point is also the end point and which has no other self-intersections) such that when traveling on it one always has the curve interior to the left (and consequently, the curve exterior to the right). If in the above definition one interchanges left and right, one obtains a negatively oriented curve.

Pattern (handwriting)

(1) Sequence of handwriting strokes.

(2) Sequence of derived data as a function of stroke order.

Pen lift

Pen-tip movement along the Z axis in handwriting, upward from the supporting writing surface (XY plane) in which the trace (handwriting) formation takes place. At the moment of pen lift, normal pen force and thus axial pen force drop to zero newtons.

Pen pressure - axial pen force

In graphonomics, Axial pen force is the component of the normal pen force that is parallel to the pen. It is dependent upon pen tilt. In the special case of a perfectly vertical orientation of the writing instrument the axial pen force equals the normal pen force.

Pen tilt

Pen-tip movement along the Z axis in handwriting, upward from the supporting writing surface (XY plane) in which the trace (handwriting) formation takes place. At the moment of pen lift, normal pen force and thus axial pen force drop to zero newtons.

Phase (waves)

Phase in waves is the fraction of a wave cycle which has elapsed relative to an arbitrary point.

Polar distribution

In probability and statistics, a circular distribution or polar distribution is a probability distribution of a random variable whose values are angles, usually taken to be in the range [ 0, 2π ) . A circular distribution is often a continuous probability distribution, and hence has a probability density, but such distributions can also be discrete, in which case they are called circular lattice distributions. Circular distributions can be used even when the variables concerned are not explicitly angles: the main consideration is that there is not usually any real distinction between events occurring at the lower or upper end of the range, and the division of the range could notionally be made at any point.

Rotation

A rotation is a circular movement of an object around a center (or point) of rotation. A three-dimensional object rotates always around an imaginary line called a rotation axis. If the axis is within the body, and passes through its center of mass the body is said to rotate upon itself, or spin. A rotation about an external point, e.g. the Earth about the Sun, is called a revolution or orbital revolution, typically when it is produced by gravity.

Roundness

The roundness or sharpness of handwriting patterns is caused by the phase of the horizontal and vertical pen-tip movements. The velocity signal components of these movements, which are virtually sinusoidal in shape, have a phase delay close to 90 degrees for very round handwriting. The correlation between Vx(t) and Vy(t) will be low. Sharp handwriting is characterized by a much higher correlation between the horizontal and vertical velocity signal, and a corresponding smaller phase delay.

Running angle

In graphonomics, the running angle is the angle of consecutive vectors (Xt,Yt) with respect to the base line, i.e.

Running angle

Usually, it is more informative to compute it using a four-quadrant version of the arctan function in a mathematical software library.

Segment (handwriting)

A segment of handwriting is a piece of the pen-tip trajectory between two defined segmentation points. If the occurrence of a minimum in the absolute (tangential) velocity is used as a heuristic for segmentation, the pen-tip trajectory can be subdivided into segments corresponding to ballistic strokes.

In handwriting recognition or optical character recognition, other terminologies may be used, such as the term glyph for a non-character (i.e.: sub character or multi-character) pattern

Slant (handwriting)

Slant is the predominant angle of the downward stroke in Western handwriting. A good basis for its estimation is the point of the handwritten curve where the velocity has its peak value in the downward stroke. The polar distribution of the running angle along a handwritten trajectory is another good method for estimating the slant angle. Left-handed writing is often accompanied by a slant value which is larger than 90 degrees, i.e., it is bent backwards, to the left.

In Graphology slant can refer to either upstroke or downstroke values. These strokes can made in the upper, middle, lower, or any combination of those zones.

In handwriting recognition, an affine transformation can be used to normalize handwritten input towards a population average or towards 90 degrees.

Sloppiness space

In graphonomics, sloppiness space is a term introduced by Goldberg and Richardson to describe the shape space of all graph (handwriting) around an idealized allograph. Sloppiness space can be so large that optical character recognition becomes very difficult due to overlap with shapes for non-intended characters.

Smoothing, Low-pass filter

In statistics and image processing, to smooth a data set is to create an approximating function that attempts to capture important patterns in the data, while leaving out noise or other fine-scale structures/rapid phenomena. Many different algorithms are used in smoothing. One of the most common algorithms is the "moving average", often used to try to capture important trends in repeated statistical surveys. In image processing and computer vision, smoothing ideas are used in scale-space representations.

A low-pass filter is a filter that passes low-frequency signals but attenuates (reduces the amplitude of) signals with frequencies higher than the cutoff frequency. The actual amount of attenuation for each frequency varies from filter to filter. It is sometimes called a high-cut filter, or treble cut filter when used in audio applications. A low-pass filter is the opposite of a high-pass filter, and a band-pass filter is a combination of a low-pass and a high-pass.

Trajectory

A trajectory is the path a moving object follows through space as a function of time. The object might be a projectile or a satellite, for example. It thus includes the meaning of orbit—the path of a planet, an asteroid or a comet as it travels around a central mass. A trajectory can be described mathematically either by the geometry of the path, or as the position of the object over time.

x-Height or Body size or Corpus size

In typography, the x-height or corpus size refers to the distance between the baseline and the mean line in a typeface. Typically, this is the height of the letter x in the font (the source of the term), as well as the u, v, w, and z. (Curved letters such as a, c, e, m, n, o, r and s tend to exceed the x-height slightly, due to overshoot.) However, in modern typography, the x-height is simply a design characteristic of the font, and while an x is usually exactly one x-height in height, in some more decorative or script designs, this may not always be the case.

 

Published - January 2011







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