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List of medical abbreviations



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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_medical_abbreviations






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This is the overview for the medical abbreviations series.

This list is far from complete; you can help by expanding it. Comprehensive reference books of medical abbreviations are available in bookstores and libraries. (See the bibliography for some suggested titles.)

Abbreviations are used very frequently in medicine. They boost efficiency as long as they are used intelligently. The advantages of brevity should be weighed against the possibilities of crypticness (making the communication harder for others to understand) and ambiguity (having more than one possible interpretation). In other words, a smart communicator uses good shortcuts, but makes sure that other people will understand what he means. Certain medical abbreviations should be avoided to prevent mistakes.

Contents

Orthographic styling

Periods (stops)

Periods (stops) are often used in styling abbreviations. Prevalent practice in medicine today is often to forgo them as unnecessary.

  • Example:
    • Less common: The diagnosis was C.O.P.D.
          [chronic obstructive pulmonary disease]
    • More common: The diagnosis was COPD.

Plurals

The prevalent way to represent plurals for medical acronyms is simply to affix a lowercase s (no apostrophe).

  • Example: one OCP, two OCPs  [oral contraceptive pills].

Possessives

Possessive forms are not often needed, but can be formed using apostrophe + s. Often the writer can also recast the sentence to avoid it.

  • Example:
    • BP's effect on risk of MI is multifaceted.
    • The effect of BP on MI risk is multifaceted.

Conventions of this series

  • This series of lists omits periods from acronyms and initialisms.
  • It uses periods for certain abbreviations that traditionally often have them (mostly older Latin/Neo-Latin abbreviations). For example, both bid and b.i.d. may be found in the list.
  • It generally uses the singular form of an abbreviation (not the plural) as the headword.

For more information on styling

The short summaries above are all that most readers will need in using this list. Interested readers can find much more detail in the main articles on abbreviations and acronyms and initialisms. For more information, see:

0-9

Abbrev. Meaning
Δ Diagnosis;
Change
ΔΔ Differential diagnosis (the list of possible diagnoses, and the effort to narrow that list)
# Fracture
#NOF Fracture to the neck of the femur
(R with crossed tail) prescription
Ψ Psychiatry
Σ Sigmoidoscopy
x/12 x number of months
x/40 x number of weeks of pregnancy
x/52 x number of weeks
x/7 x number of days
5-HIAA 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid
5-HT 5-hydroxytryptamine, that is, serotonin

A

Abbrev. Meaning
ā (a with a bar over it) before (from Latin ante)
artery
A Adenosine
Apical
a.a. Of each (from Latin ana ana)
Amino acids:
AAA Abdominal aortic aneurysm (pronounced "triple-A")
AAT Activity as tolerated
AAL Anterior axillary line
AAOx3 Awake, alert, and oriented, times 3 (i.e., to person, place, and time)
A/B Acid-base ratio
ab Abdomen
Abdominal
Ab Antibody
AB Abortion
ABC Airway, breathing, circulation
Aspiration biopsy cytology
ABCD Airway, breathing, circulation, disability
Asymmetry, borders, color, diameter (features on considering "Is it a malignant melanoma?")
ABCD rating (a staging system for prostate cancer)
ABCs
ABCDs
ABCDEs
Airway, breathing, circulation, etc. Refers to priority of needs in emergency situations. Exact spell-out and details after "C" vary by institution, but the "ABCs" theme is recurrent.
Abd Abdomen
Abdominal
ABE Acute bacterial endocarditis
ABG Arterial blood gas
ABI Acquired brain injury
Ankle brachial pressure index
ABMT Autologous bone marrow transplantation
Abn Abnormal
ABO Landsteiner's blood grouping system
ABPA Allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis
ABPI Ankle brachial pressure index
ABVD Doxorubicin (Adriamycin), bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine (first-line treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma)
ABX Antibiotics
a.c.
AC
Before a meal (from Latin ante cibum)
ACB Aortocoronary bypass
AC&BC Air conduction and bone conduction, as in Weber test
Acc Accommodation (eye)
ACCU Acute coronary care unit
ACD Anemia of chronic disease
ACDF Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion
Ace Acetone
ACE Angiotensin-converting enzyme
ACEI Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor(s)
ACh Acetylcholine
AChE Acetylcholine esterase
ACL Anterior cruciate ligament
ACLS Advanced cardiac life support
ACS Acute coronary syndrome
ACTH Adrenocorticotropic hormone
ACU Ambulatory care unit
ad. Right ear (from Latin auris dexter)
AD Alzheimer's disease
Acute distress
Right ear (from Latin auris dexter)
ADA Adenosine deaminase
ADC AIDS dementia complex
ADCC Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity
ADD Attention deficit disorder
ADH Antidiuretic hormone
ADHD Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
ADHR Autosomal-dominant hypophosphatemic rickets
ADLs Activities of daily living
ad lib As desired (from Latin ad libitum)
adm Admission
Adn Adnexae (for example, adnexae of the uterus)
ADP Adenosine diphosphate
ad part. dolent To the painful parts (from Latin ad partes dolentes)
ADR Adverse drug reaction
AED Automated external defibrillator
Anti-epileptic drug(s)
AEM Ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring
AF Atrial fibrillation
Atrial flutter
Amniotic fluid
AFB Acid-fast bacilli
AFib Atrial fibrillation
AFO Ankle-foot orthosis
AFP Alpha-fetoprotein
Ag Antigen
AGA Anti-gliadin antibodies
Appropriate gestational age (see birth weight)
AGES criteria Age, grade, extent, size (for tumors)
AGN Acute glomerulonephritis
a.h. Every other hour (from Latin alternis horis)
AHF Antihemophilic factor
AHG Antihemophilic globulin
AHH Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase
AHR Airway hyper-reactivity
AI Artificial insemination
Aortic insufficiency
AICD Automated implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
AID Artificial insemination by donor
AIDS Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
AIH Artificial insemination by husband
AIHD Artificial insemination by pooled husband and donor semen
AIPD Acute infectious and parasitical diseases
Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis
Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy
AIIRB angiotensin II receptor antagonist
AIN Acute interstitial nephritis
AIS Adenocarcinoma in situ
aka Also known as
AKA above-knee amputation
Also known as
ALA Aminolevulinic acid
Alc Alcohol
ALG Antilymphocytic globulin
ALI Acute lung injury
Alk phos Alkaline phosphatase (sometimes abbreviated as ALP)
ALL Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Allergies
ALP Alkaline phosphatase (sometimes abbreviated as Alk phos)
ALPS Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome
ALS Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Advanced life support
ALT Alanine transaminase
altern. d. Every other day (from Latin alterno die)
AMA Advanced maternal age (35 years or greater)
Against medical advice
Anti-mitochondrial antibody
American Medical Association
Amb Ambulate
AMC Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita
AMI Acute myocardial infarction
AML Acute myeloid leukemia
AMP Adenosine monophosphate
Amp Ampule
Ampere
AMPA receptor Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor of the brain
AMS Acute mountain sickness
Atypical measles syndrome
Amt Amount
ANA Anti-nuclear antibody
ANCA Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody
ANDI Aberrations of normal development and involution (of breast)
ANF Atrial natriuretic factor
ANP Atrial natriuretic peptide
ANS Autonomic nervous system
Ant Anterior
Anti- Refers to an antibody to the suffixed antigen
ANTR Asymmetrical tonic neck reflex
ANUG Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
A&O Aware and oriented
A&Ox3 Alert and oriented, times 3 (to person, place, and time)
A&Ox4 Alert and oriented, times 4 (to person, place, time, and circumstances) (often used interchangeably with A&Ox3)
AODM Adult-onset diabetes mellitus (now called diabetes mellitus type 2)
AOM Acute otitis media
a.p. Before a meal (from Latin ante prandium)
AP Alkaline phosphatase
Anteroposterior
Angina pectoris
A&P Auscultation and percussion
APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II
APAP Paracetamol (aka acetaminophen) (from its chemical name, N-acetyl-para-aminophenol)
Automatic positive airway pressure
APC Atrial premature contraction
Antigen-presenting cell
Activated protein C
APD Adult polycystic disease
Automated peritoneal dialysis
APKD Adult polycystic kidney disease
APECED Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy
APGAR Appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, respiration - used to assess newborns
APH Antepartum haemorrhage
APLS Antiphospholipid syndrome
APMPPE Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy
applic. Applicandus (Latin meaning "to be applied")
APR Abdominoperineal resection
APS Autoimmune polyendocrine/polyglandular syndrome
APSAC Anisoylated plasminogen streptokinase activator complex
aPTT Activated partial thromboplastin time
aq. Water (from Latin aqua)
aq. bull. Boiling water (from Latin aqua bulliens)
aq. calid. Warm or hot water (from Latin aqua calida)
aq. dist. Distilled water (from Latin aqua distillata)
aq. gel. Cold water (from Latin aqua gelida)
AR Aortic regurgitation
ARB Angiotensin II receptor antagonist
ARC AIDS-related complex
ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome
Adult respiratory distress syndrome
ARF Acute renal failure
Arg Arginine
ARM Artificial rupture of membranes (also abbreviated as AROM)
AROM Active range of motion
Artificial rupture of membranes
ART Antiretroviral therapy
Assuming room temperature (that is, the patient has died)
ARVC Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy
ARVD Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia
AS Aortic stenosis
Atherosclerosis
ASA Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin)
ASAP As soon as possible
ASC Ambulatory surgery center
ASCAD Arteriosclerotic coronary artery disease
ASCUS Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance
ASCVD Arteriosclerotic vascular disease (arteriosclerosis)
ASD Atrial septal defect
ASGUS Atypical squamous glandular cells of undetermined significance
ASH
ASHD
Arteriosclerotic heart disease (coronary heart disease)
ASIS Anterior superior iliac spine
ASO Antistreptolysin-O
ASOT Antistreptolysin-O titre
Ass Assessment
AST Aspartate transaminase
ASX Asymptomatic
AT Antithrombin
Angiotensin
ATA Anti-transglutaminase antibodies
ATB Antibiotic
ATCC American Type Culture Collection
ATG Antithymic globulin
AT-III Antithrombin III
ATN Acute tubular necrosis
ATNR Asymmetrical tonic neck reflex
ATP Acute thrombocytopenic purpura
Adenosine triphosphate
Anti-tachycardia pacing
Atp Atapical
ATRA All-trans retinoic acid
ATS Anti-tetanus serum, that is, anti-tetanus immunoglobulins
AUC Area under the curve (pharmacology)
aur. Ear (from Latin auris)
aur. dextro. To right ear (from Latin auris dextrae)
aur. laev To left ear (from Latin auris laevae)
aurist. Ear drops (from Latin auristillae)
AV Arteriovenous
Atrioventricular
AVM Arteriovenous malformation
AVR Aortic valve replacement
A&W
A/W
Alive and well
Ax Axillary
AXR Abdominal x-ray
AZT Azidothymidine

B

Abbrev. Meaning
Bx Biopsy
Ba Barium
BAC Blood alcohol content
BAL Bronchoalveolar lavage
British anti-Lewisite
Blood alcohol level
BAO Basic acid output
BAT Brown adipose tissue
BBB Blood brain barrier
BBB L Left bundle branch block
BBB R Right bundle branch block
BC Bone conduction
Blood culture
BCC Basal cell carcinoma
Blind carbon copy
BCG Bacille Calmette-Guerin (a tuberculosis vaccination)
BCP Birth control pill
BCX
BCx
Blood culture
BBMF "Bone break, me fix" (orthopedic consent form)
BD Bipolar disorder
Twice a day (from Latin bis in die)
BDD Body dysmorphic disorder
BDI Beck Depression Inventory
BE Barium enema
Base excess
BFP Bundle forming pilus
BGAT Blood Glucose Awareness Training (to help patients with diabetic hypoglycemia)
BGL Blood glucose level
BIB Brought in by
BIBA Brought in by ambulance
BID
bid
b.i.d.
Twice a day (from Latin bis in die)
Bilat eq Bilaterally equal
BiPAP Bilevel positive airway pressure
BiVAD Bilateral ventricular assist device (left and right)
BK Bradykinin
BKA Below-the-knee amputation
bl.cult Blood culture
bld Blood
BLS Basic life support
BM Bowel movement
BMC Bone mineral content
BMD Bone mineral density (also termed bone mass measurement)
BMI Body mass index
BMP Blood metabolic profile
BMR Basal metabolic rate
BMT Bone marrow transplantation
BNO Bowel not open
BNP Brain natriuretic peptide
BO Bowel open
B/O Because of
BOA Born out of asepsis
BOI Born on island (i.e., a local patient)
BOM Bilateral otitis media
BOOP Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia
BP Blood pressure
Bipolar disorder
BPAD Bipolar affective disorder
BPD Biparietal diameter
Borderline personality disorder
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia
BPH Benign prostatic hyperplasia aka benign prostatic hypertrophy
BPM Beats per minute
BPPV Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo
BR Bedrest
Bathroom
BRA Bilateral renal agenesis
BRAT The BRAT diet: bananas, rice, applesauce, (dry) toast (helps digestion in some GI disorders)
BRATY Another version of the BRAT diet: bananas, rice, applesauce, (dry) toast, yogurt (helps digestion in some GI disorders)
BRB Bright red blood (color is important as an indicator of source, for example in gastrointestinal bleeding)
BRBPR Bright red blood per rectum
BRCA1 (gene)
BRCA1 (protein)
Breast cancer 1 (a human gene and its protein)
BRCA2 (gene)
BRCA2 (protein)
Breast cancer 2 (a human gene and its protein)
BRP Bathroom privileges
BS Breath
Breath sound
Bowel sounds on auscultation with stethoscope
Blood sugar
BSA Body surface area
BSC Bedside commode
BSE Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
Breast self-examination
BSL Blood sugar level
BSP Bromsulphthalein
BT Bleeding time
BTL Bilateral tubal ligation
BTP Breakthrough pain
BUN Blood urea nitrogen
BV Bacterial vaginosis
BVP Biventricular pacing (see artificial pacemaker)
Bx Biopsy
BZDs benzodiazepines

C

Abbrev. Meaning
c (c with a bar over it) with (from Latin cum)
C Cytosine
Cervical vertebrae
C1 Atlas - first cervical vertebra of the spine
C2 Axis - second cervical vertebra of the spine
C-section Cesarean section
CA Carcinoma
Cancer
Ca Calcium
Carcinoma
Cancer
CABG Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (pronounced "cabbage")
CABP Coronary artery bypass procedure
CAD Coronary artery disease
CADASIL Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy
CAG Coronary artery graft
Coronary angiography
CAGS Coronary artery graft surgery
cAMP Cyclic adenosine monophosphate
CAH Chronic active hepatitis
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
CAPD Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
Caps Capsule
CAT Computed axial tomography
Cath Catheter
CBC Complete blood count
CBC/DIFF Complete blood count/differential
CBD Common Bile Duct
CBS Chronic brain syndrome
CC
cc
Cubic centimeter (use mL instead—see the do-not-use list)
Chief complaint
Cardiac catheter
Carbon copy
CCCU Critical coronary care unit
CCE
C/C/E
Clubbing, cyanosis, and edema (general signs of cardiovascular disease)
CCF Congestive cardiac failure
CCK Cholecystokinin
CCK-PZ Cholecystokinin-pancreozymin
CCR Cardiocerebral resuscitation
CCU Coronary care unit
Critical care unit
CD Crohn's disease
CDH Congenital dislocated hip
CDP Cytosine diphosphate
CEA Carcinoembryonic antigen
Carotid endarterectomy
Cost-effectiveness analysis
CF Cystic fibrosis
CFA Colonization factor antigen
CFIDS Chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome
CFS Chronic fatigue syndrome
CFTR Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator
cGMP Cyclic guanosine monophosphate
CGN Chronic glomerulonephritis
CH Congenital hypothyroidism
CHD Chronic heart disease
ChE Cholinesterase
CHEM-7 A group of blood tests, commonly called a basic metabolic panel (blood urea nitrogen, carbon dioxide, creatinine, glucose, serum chloride, serum potassium, serum sodium)
CHEM-20 A group of blood tests (albumin, alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, calcium - serum, serum chloride, carbon dioxide, creatinine, direct bilirubin, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, glucose test, lactate dehydrogenase, phosphorus - serum, potassium test, serum sodium, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, total protein, uric acid)
CHD Coronary heart disease
CHE Cholinesterase
CHF Congestive heart failure
CHO Carbohydrate
Chol Cholesterol
CHT Congenital hypothyroidism
CI Confidence interval
Cardiac index
CICU Cardiac intensive care unit
CIDP Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy
CIN Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
Circ Circumcision
Circulation
CIS Carcinoma in situ
CJD Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
CK Creatine kinase
Creatinine phosphokinase (formerly CPK)
CKD Chronic kidney disease
CKMB MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase
CLL Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
CM Chirurgiae Magister Master of Surgery British and Commonwealth countries medical degree
CMD Cystic medial degeneration
CME Continuing medical education
CML Chronic myelogenous leukemia, also called chronic myeloid leukaemia
CMML Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia
CMP Complete metabolic panel
Cytosine monophosphate
CMS Chronic mountain sickness
CMT Cervical motion tenderness
CMV Cytomegalovirus
CN Cranial nerves
CNS Central nervous system
Crigler-Najjar syndrome
C/O Complains of...
CO Cardiac output
Carbon monoxide
Complains of...
COAD Chronic obstructive airways disease
COCP Combined oral contraceptive pill
COLD Chronic obstructive lung disease
Comp Compound
Conj Conjunctiva
COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
CO2 Carbon dioxide
COX-1 Cyclooxygenase 1
COX-2 Cyclooxygenase 2
COX-3 Cyclooxygenase 3
CP Cerebral palsy
Chest pain
CPAP Continuous positive airway pressure
CPC Clinical pathological conference
CPE Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin
CPK Creatine phosphokinase
CPKMB Creatine phosphokinase heart
CPP Cerebral perfusion pressure
CPR Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CPT Current procedural terminology
CR Complete remission
Cr Creatinine
CrCl Creatinine clearance
(Note: Looks similar to, but does not mean, the chromium chlorides—CrCl2, CrCl3, CrCl4)
Creat Creatinine
CREST Calcinosis Raynaud Esophagus Sclerosis Teleangiectasiae
CRF Chronic renal failure
Corticotropin-releasing factor
CRH Corticotropin-releasing hormone
CRI Chronic renal insufficiency
Crit Hematocrit
CRP C-reactive protein
CRT Cardiac resynchronization therapy (artificial pacemaker)
CS
C/S
Caesarean section
C&S Culture and sensitivity (antibiogram)
C-spine Cervical spine
CsA Ciclosporin A
CSF Cerebrospinal fluid
Colony stimulating factor
CT Computed tomography
CTA Clear to auscultation
Computed tomography angiography
CTP Cytosine triphosphate
CTS Computed tomography scan
CTU Cancer treatment unit
CTX Ceftriaxone (a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic)
Contractions
CV Cardiovascular
CVA Cerebrovascular accident
Costovertebral angle
CVAT Costovertebral angle tenderness
CVC Central venous catheter
Chronic venous congestion
CVD Cardiovascular disease
CVI Cerebrovascular incident
CVP Central venous pressure
CVS Chorionic villus sampling
Cardiovascular system
CVID Common variable immunodeficiency
c/w Consistent with
CWP Coal worker's pneumoconiosis
Cx Microbiological culture
CXR Chest x-ray

D

Abbrev. Meaning
DS Diagnosis
D5 5% dextrose
D5W 5% dextrose in water - IV fluids for intravenous therapy
d Day(s)
DA Dopamine
DAEC Diffusely-adherent Escherichia coli
DALY Disability adjusted life year
DBP Diastolic blood pressure
DBS Deep brain stimulation
D&C Dilatation and curettage
D/C Discontinue
Discharge
DCBE Double Contrast Barium Enema
DCIS Ductal carcinoma in situ
DCM Dilated cardiomyopathy
DD Differential diagnosis
DDD Daily Defined Doses
DDx Differential diagnosis
D&E Dilatation and evacuation
DES Diethylstilbestrol
DEXA Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry
DH Developmental history
DHE Dihydroergotamine
DHEA-S Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate
DHF Decompensated heart failure
DI Diabetes insipidus
DIB Dead in Bed
DIC Disseminated intravascular coagulation
DIP Distal interphalangeal joint
DiPerTe Diphtheria Pertussis Tetanus
Dis Dislocation
Disch Discharge
DiTe Diphtheria Tetanus
DIU Death in utero - stillbirth
DJD Degenerative Joint Disease
Degenerative joint disease - Osteoarthritis
DKA Diabetic Keto-Acidosis
dl Deciliter
dL Deciliter
DLE Disseminated lupus erythematosus - Systemic lupus erythematosus
DM Diabetes mellitus
DMD Duchenne muscular dystrophy;
Dentariae Medicinae Doctor, that is, Doctor of Dental Medicine
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid
DNI Do Not Intubate
DNR Do not resuscitate
DNAR Do not attempt resuscitation
DOA Dead on arrival
Drugs of abuse
DOB Date of birth
DOE Dyspnea on exertion
DOSS Docusate sodium; from the chemical name dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate
DP Dorsalis pedis
DPH Diphenylhydantoin
DPL diagnostic peritoneal lavage
DPT Diphtheria Pertussis Tetanus - DPT vaccine
DRT Dead right there
DS Disease
DS Down's Syndrome - Trisomy 21
DSA Digital subtraction angiography
DSD Dry sterile dressing
Dsg Dressing
DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
dsRNA Double stranded RNA
DT Diphtheria Tetanus
Delirium tremens
DTA Descending thoracic aorta
DTaP Diphtheria Tetanus acellular Pertussis
DTP Diphtheria Tetanus Pertussis
DTR Deep tendon reflex
DTs Delirium tremens
DU Duodenal ulcer - peptic ulcer
DUB Dysfunctional uterine bleeding
DVT Deep vein thrombosis
DW Dextrose in water
D5W 5% dextrose in water
DX Diagnosis
DZ Disease

E

Abbrev. Meaning
E Ecstasy
Electrolytes
Enterococcus
Epinephrine
EAC External acoustic meatus
EACA Epsilon-aminocaproic acid
EAEC Enteroadhesive Escherichia coli
EAF Enteric adherence factor
EBL Estimated blood loss (see bleeding)
EBM Evidence-based medicine
Expressed breast milk
EBT Electron beam tomography
EBV Epstein-Barr virus
EC Enteric coating
ECF Extracellular fluid
Enteric cytopathic human orphan
ECG Electrocardiogram
ECM Extracellular matrix
ECHO Enteric cytopathic human orphan virus
ECI Febris e causa ignota (normally written as febris E.C.I.)
Fever of unknown origin
ECLS Extracorporeal life support
ECMO Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
ECP Emergency Care Practitioner
ECT Electroconvulsive therapy
ED Emergency department
Erectile dysfunction
Ectodermal dysplasia
EDC Estimated date of confinement (at 40/40 weeks of pregnancy)
EDD Estimated date of delivery (at 40/40 weeks of pregnancy); expected date of delivery
Estimated date of discharge
EDH Epidural hematoma
EDM Esophageal Doppler monitor
EDRF Endothelium-derived relaxing factor aka nitric oxide
EDTA Ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid
EDV End-diastolic volume
EEE Eastern equine encephalitis
EEG Electroencephalogram
EENT Ears, eyes, nose, throat (see Otolaryngology)
EEX Electrodiagnosis
EF Ejection fraction
EFM Electronic fetal monitoring, aka external fetal monitoring (cardiotocograph)
EGBUS External genitalia, Bartholin's glands, urethra & Skene's glands
EGD Esophagogastroduodenoscopy
EGF Epidermal growth factor
EHEC Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli
EIEC Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli
EJ Elbow jerk (triceps reflex)
EKG Electrocardiogram
ELLSCS Elective lower segment caesarean section
ELISA Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
EmBx Endometrial biopsy
EMC Encephalomyocarditis
EMD Early morning discovery
Electromechanical dissociation
EMF Endomyocardial fibrosis
EMG Electromyography
EMLSCS Emergency lower segment Caesarean section
EMU Early morning urine sample (being the most concentrated, generally used for pregnancy testing)
Emul Emulsion
ENT Ear, nose, and throat (see Otolaryngology)
EOM Extraocular muscles
EOMI Extraocular movements intact (see eye movement)
EPEC Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli
EPH Edema proteinuria hypertension
EPO Erythropoietin
EPS Electrophysiology
ER Emergency room
ERCP Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
ESL Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (also ESWL) (see lithotriptor);
English as a second language (affects provider-patient communication)
ESBL Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (see also gram-negative bacteria)
ESR Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
ESRD End-stage renal disease
ESV End-systolic volume
ESWL Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (also ESL) (see lithotriptor)
ET Endothelin
Endotracheal
ETEC Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli
Etiol Etiology
ETOH Ethanol (ethyl alcohol)
ETS Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy
ETT Endotracheal tube
EUA Examination under anesthesia
EUP Extrauterine pregnancy
EUS Endoscopic ultrasonography
EVAR Endovascular aneurysm repair
EVF Erythrocyte volume fraction (see hematocrit)
Exam Examination (for example, physical examination)
Exp Lap Exploratory laparotomy
Ext Extremities

F

Abbrev. Meaning
Fx Fracture
FAMMM syndrome Familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome
FAP Familial adenomatous polyposis
FAST Focused assessment with sonography for trauma
FB Foreign body
FBC Full blood count
FBE Full blood exam
FBG Fasting blood glucose
FBS Fasting blood sugar
F/C Fevers and/or chills
FDC Follicular dendritic cells
FDIU Foetal demise in utero
FDP Fibrin degradation product
FEV1 Forced expiratory volume in 1 second
Fe Iron
fem Female
Femoral
FEP Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin
FF Free fluids (non-thickened fluids)
FFA Free fatty acids
FFP Fresh frozen plasma
FHR Fetal heart rate
FHS Fetal heart sound
FHT Fetal heart tones
FHx Family history (in medicine, meaning specifically the medical histories of family members and ancestors)
FIBD Found in bed dead
FISH Fluorescence in situ hybridization
FLK Funny-looking kid (unprofessional, offensive slang referring imprecisely to dysmorphic features)
fl.oz. Fluid ounce (1 Imperial fluid ounce ≈ 28.4 mL; 1 U.S. fluid ounce ≈ 29.6 mL) (use of these units is generally deprecated in modern medicine in favor of mL)
FMF Fetal movements felt
FMP First menstrual period (that is, menarche)
fMRI Functional magnetic resonance imaging
F→N Finger-to-nose test (one simple clinical test of motor coordination)
FNA Fine-needle aspiration
FNAB Fine-needle aspiration biopsy
FNAC Fine-needle aspiration cytology
FNC Full nursing care
FNH Focal nodular hyperplasia
FOBT Fecal occult blood test
FOF Found on floor (patient fell out of bed)
FOS Full of stool
FPG Fasting plasma glucose
FROM Full range of motion
FSBS Finger-stick blood sugar (one method of blood glucose monitoring)
FSE Fetal scalp electrode
FSH Follicle-stimulating hormone
FTA Fluorescent treponemal antibody
FTA-ABS Fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption
FTT Failure to thrive
F/U Follow-up
FUO Fever of unknown origin
FVC forced vital capacity (spirometry test value used in assessment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
FWB Full weight bearing
FWD Full ward diet;
forward
Fx Fracture of a bone

G

Abbrev. Meaning
G Gravidity (total number of pregnancies, successful or not)
Guanosine
G6PD Glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase
GA General anaesthesia
GABA Gamma-aminobutyric acid
GB Gallbladder
GBS Guillain-Barre syndrome
GBM Glioblastoma multiforme
Glomerular basement membrane
GC General Condition
Gonococcus
GCA Giant cell arteritis
GCS Glasgow coma scale
G-CSF Granulocyte - colony stimulating factor
GDA Gastroduodenal artery
GDLH Glutamate dehydrogenase
GDP Guanosine diphosphate
GERD Gastroesophageal reflux disease
GFR Glomerular filtration rate
GGT Gamma glutamyl transferase
GGTP Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase
GH Growth hormone
GHRF Growth hormone releasing factor
GI Gastrointestinal (... tract)
GIFT Gamete intrafallopian transfer
GIST Gastrointestinal stromal tumor
GIT Gastrointestinal tract
GITS Gastrointestinal therapeutic system
GMC General Medical Condition (i.e., 0 GMC)
GM-CSF Granulocyte-Monocyte - Colony Stimulating Factor
GMP Guanosine monophosphate
GN Glomerulonephritis
GNRH Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone
GOAT Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test
GOD Glucose Oxidase
GOK God only knows
GOMER Get Outta My E.R. i.e. patient who frequently presents at the ER near death but manages to pull through each and every time.
GORD Gastroesophageal reflux disease
GOT Glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase
GP General practitioner
GPT Glutamic-pyruvic transaminase
Gr Grain
GRAV I Indicating woman during first pregnancy
GSW Gunshot wound see HVLT (High-velocity Lead Therapy)
GTN Glyceryl trinitrate
GTT Glucose tolerance test
Gtts Drops - Guttae
GU Genitourinary
Gastric ulcer
GUM Genitourinary medicine (often used more restrictively as alternative to sexually transmitted disease clinic)
GvH Graft-versus-host
GvHD Graft-versus-host disease
GYN Gynecology

H

Abbrev. Meaning
h Hour
H Histamine or its receptors (if with subscripts)
hemagglutinin
Hx History
HA Hypertonia arterialis
Headache
H/A Headache
HAA Hepatitis Associated antigen
HAART Highly active anti-aetroviral therapy
HACE High-altitude cerebral edema
HACEK acronym for a group of bacteria that are a frequent cause of endocarditis in children
HAE Hereditary angioedema
HAD HIV-associated dementia
H/A Headache
HALE Health-adjusted life expectancy
HAPE High-altitude pulmonary edema
HAV Hepatitis A virus
Hb Hemoglobin
HB Heart block
Hb% Hemoglobin concentration in gram per deciliter
HbA Hemoglobin A (commonest type of hemoglobin)
HbA1C Glycosylated hemoglobin (used as a measure of diabetes control)
HBD Has been drinking
HbF Fetal hemoglobin
HBP High blood pressure, that is, hypertension
HbsAg Hepatitis B surface antigen
HBV Bepatitis B virus
HC Hemorrhagic colitis
HCC Hepatocellular carcinoma
hCG Human chorionic gonadotropin
HCL Hairy cell leukemia
HCM Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Hct Hematocrit
HCT Hematocrit
Hematopoietic cell transplantation
HCRP Hospital Cornea Retrieval Programme
HCTZ Hydrochlorothiazide
HD Hodgkin's disease
HCV Hepatitis C virus
HDL High-density lipoprotein
HDL-C High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol
HDU High dependency unit
HDV Hepatitis D virus
H&E Hematoxylin and eosin, a standard tissue stain
HEENT Head, eyes, ears, nose, throat
HELP
HELLP
Hypertension, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets (syndrome) (in pregnancy)
HEMA Hydroxy ethyl methacrylate, a material in soft contact lenses
Hema Hematest - e.g. Hema (-) - fecal occult blood
HES Hydroxyethyl starch
HETE Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid
HEV Hepatitis E virus
HFM Hand foot and mouth disease
HFRS Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome
HGB Hemoglobin
HGSIL High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion
HGV Hepatitis G virus
HGPRTase Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase
HH Hiatus hernia
H&H Hemoglobin and hematocrit
HHT Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectisia
HHV Human herpesvirus
(including numerous subtypes such as HHV8)
HI Homicidal ideation
Hib haemophilus influenzae B
HIDS Hyper-IgD (and periodic fever) syndrome
HIT Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia
HIV Human immunodeficiency virus
HL Hepatic lipase
Hodgkin's lymphoma
Hearing level
HLA Human leukocyte antigen
HLHS Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
H&M Hematemesis and melena
HMD Hyaline membrane disease
HMG-CoA 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA
HMGR 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase
HMS Hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly
HMSN Hereditary motor sensory neuropathy
HN Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase
HND Hemolytic disease of the newborn
HNPCC Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer
H/O History of ...
HOB Head of bed--usually followed by degrees
HOCM Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy
HONK Hyperosmolar nonketotic coma
H&P History and physical examination (which very often are considered as a pair)
HPA Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
HPETE Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid
HPF High power field (microscopy)
HPI
H/oPI
History of the present illness
HPOA Hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy (clubbing)
HPL Human placental lactogen (same as human chorionic somatomammotropin)
HPS Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
HPV Human papillomavirus
HR Heart rate
HRCT High resolution computed tomography
HRT Hormone replacement therapy
h.s. At bedtime (from Latin hora somni)
hs Hours of sleep
H→S Heel-to-shin test
HSC Human chorionic somatomammotropin (same as human placental lactogen)
HSG Hysterosalpingogram
HSIL High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion
HSP Henoch-Schönlein purpura
HSV Herpes simplex virus
HT Hypertension
Ht Height
HTLV Human T-lymphotropic virus
HTN Hypertension
HTPA Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
HTVD Hypertensive vascular disease
HUS Hemolytic uremic syndrome
HVLT High-velocity lead therapy (see also GSW, gunshot wound)
Hx History (of)

I

Abbrev. Meaning
131I or I131 Radioactive iodine
IA Intra-arterial
IABP Intra-aortic balloon pump
IAI Intra-amniotic infection
IBC Inflammatory breast cancer
IBD Inflammatory bowel disease
IBS Irritable bowel syndrome
IC Ileocecal
Immunocompromised
Informed consent
Intensive care
Interstitial cystitis
Immune complex
Intracardiac
ICD Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
ICDS Integrated Child Development Services Program
ICD-10 International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision
ICF Intracellular fluid
ICG Impedance cardiography
ICH Intracerebral hemorrhage
ICP Intracranial pressure
ICS Intercostal space
ICU Intensive care unit
ICCU Intensive cardiac care unit
ID Infectious disease
Identifying data
I&D Incision and drainage (how to treat an abscess}
IDA Iron deficiency anemia
IDC Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy
Indwelling catheter
Infiltrating ductal carcinoma
IDDM Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
IDL Intermediate density lipoprotein
IDP Infectious Disease Precautions/ Process
IF Immunofluorescence
IFG Impaired fasting glycaemia
Ig Immunoglobulin
IgA Immunoglobulin A
IgD Immunoglobulin D
IgE Immunoglobulin E
IgG Immunoglobulin G
IgM Immunoglobulin M
IGT Impaired glucose tolerance
IHC Immunohistochemistry e
IHD Ischaemic heart disease
IHSS Ideopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis - Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
IM Intramuscular
IMA Inferior mesenteric artery
IMB Intermenstrual Bleed (bleeding between periods)
IMI Intramuscular injection
IMN Infectious Mononucleosis
IMT Intima-media thickness
IMV Intermittent mandatory ventilation - Mechanical ventilation
Inc Incomplete
INF(-α/-β/-γ) Interferons -α/-β/-γ
INH Isoniazid
Inj Injection
INR International normalized ratio
Int Internal
IO Intraosseous infusion
I&O Inputs and Outputs
Intake and Outputs
IOL Induction of labor
Intraocular lens
IOP Intraocular pressure
IP Interphalangeal joint
IPF Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
IPS Intra-Peritoneal Sounds
IPPB Intermittent positive pressure ventilation
IPPV Intermittent positive pressure ventilation
IQ Intelligence Quotient
IR Insulin resistance
IRDS Infant respiratory distress syndrome
ISA Intrinsic Sympathomimetic Activity
ISDN Isosorbide dinitrate
ISH Isolated systolic hypertension
ISMN Isosorbide mononitrate
ISQ No change (from Latin, in status quo)
IT Intrathecal
ITP Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
Immune mediated thrombocytopenic purpura
ITU Intensive Treatment Unit (or Intensive Therapy Unit)
IUCD intrauterine contraceptive device
IU International units
IUD Intrauterine Death - sometimes confused with intrauterine contraceptive device. Use FDIU or IUFD
Intrauterine device - sometimes confused with intrauterine death. We now use IUCD - Intrauterine contraceptive device
IUFD IntraUterine Foetal Demise
IUGR Intrauterine growth retardation
IUI Intrauterine insemination
IUP Intrauterine pregnancy
IUS IntraUterine System
IV Intravenous
IVC Inferior vena cava
IV-DSA Intravenous digital subtraction angiography
IVDU Intravenous drug user
IVF In vitro fertilization;
Intravenous fluids
IVP Intravenous pyelogram
IVPB Intravenous Piggyback (i.v. short term infusion)
IVU Intravenous urogram
IVUS Intravascular ultrasound

J

Abbrev. Meaning
JCV John Cunningham virus
JEV Japanese encephalitis virus
JIA Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
JMS Junior medical student, aka MS-3
JODM Juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus
JRA Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (now called juvenile idiopathic arthritis)
JVD Jugular vein distension
JVP Jugular venous pressure

K

Abbrev. Meaning
K Potassium
KA Ketoacidosis
Kcal Kilocalorie, calorie
KCCT Kaolin cephalin clotting time
kg Kilogram
KIV Keep in view
KLS Kidney, liver, spleen
KS Kaposi's sarcoma
Kartagener Syndrome
KSHV Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus
KUB Kidneys, ureters, and bladder (x-ray)
KVO Keep vein open (with slow infusion)

L

Abbrev. Meaning
L Leukocytes
Lumbar vertebrae
LA Lymphadenopathy
Left atrium
Lab Laboratory
LABBB Left anterior bundle branch block
LAD Left Anterior Descending - Coronary artery
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency
Left Axis Deviation - Electrocardiogram
Lymphadenopathy
LAE Left atrial enlargement
LAH Left anterior hemiblock
LAHB Left anterior hemiblock
Lam Laminectomy
LAP Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase
Lap Laparotomy
LAR Low Anterior Resection
LARP Left → anterior, right → posterior (path of the vagi as they wander from thorax to abdomen)
LAS Lymphadenopathy syndrome
Lat Lateral
lb; LB Pound (mass)
LBBB Left bundle branch block
LBO Large bowel obstruction
LBP Low back pain
LBW Low birth weight
LCA Left coronary artery
LCIS Lobular carcinoma in situ
LCM Lymphocytic meningitis
LCMV Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
LCV Leukocytoclastic vasculitis
LCX Left circumflex artery
L&D Labor and delivery - Childbirth
LDH Lactate dehydrogenase
LDL Low density lipoprotein
LDL-C Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol
L-DOPA Levo-DihydrOxyPhenylAlanine
LEC Lupus erythematosus cell
LEEP Loop electrical excision procedure
LES Lower esophageal sphincter
Lupus erythematosus systemicus
LE Lupus erythematosus (in German Lupus erythematodes)
Lower extremity - Human leg
leu Leukocytes
LFT Liver function test
LGA Large for gestational age, see birth weight
LGL Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome
LGM Lymphogranulomatosis maligna
LGSIL Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion
LGV Lymphogranuloma venereum
LH Luteinizing hormone
Lig Ligament
LIH Left inguinal hernia
LLE Left lower extremity
LLETZ Large loop excision of the transformation zone
LLL Left lower lobe
LLQ Left lower quadrant
LM Left Main
LMA left mentoanterior - Fetal position
LMCA Left main coronary artery
LMD Local medical doctor
LMP Last Menstrual Period - first day of the menstrual period prior to conceiving, used to calculated Expected Date of Delivery.
LN Lymph node
LOA Left occipitoanterior - Fetal position
LOC Loss of consciousness - Unconsciousness
Level of consciousness (e.g. "altered LOC from head trauma")
LOL Little old lady ... often LOL in NAD (see House of God)
LOP Left occipitoposterior - Fetal position
LORTA Loss Of Resistance To Air (in anesthesiology; when placing epidural, LORTA indicates entrance of needle to epidural space)
LOS Length of stay
Lot Lotion
Lp Lipoprotein
LP Lumbar puncture
LPH Left posterior hemiblock - Heart block
LPL Lipoprotein lipase
LR Lactated Ringer's solution
LRTI Lower respiratory tract infection
LT Heat labile
LTAC Long-term acute care
LSB Left sternal border
LSIL Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion
LUL Left upper lobe - Lung
LUQ Left upper quadrant
LV Left ventricle
LVAD Left ventricular assist device
LVEDP Left ventricular end diastolic pressure
LVEF Left ventricular ejection fraction
LVF Left ventricular failure
LVH Left ventricular hypertrophy
LVOT Left Ventricular Outflow Track
Lc of ch Laxative of choice
Ly Lymphocytes
lytes Electrolytes

M

Abbrev. Meaning
M Murmur (heart murmur)
MAE Moves all extremities
MAHA Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia
MAL Midaxillary line
MALT Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue
MAO-I Monoamine oxidase inhibitor
Macrophage
MAP Mean arterial pressure
MARSA Methicillin- and aminoglycoside-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
MAS Morgagni-Adams-Stokes syndrome
MAT Multifocal atrial tachycardia
Microscopic agglutination test
MC Metacarpal bone
MCP Metacarpophalangeal joint
MCHC Mean cell hemoglobin concentration
MCH Mean cell hemoglobin;
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin
MC&S Microscopy, culture, and sensitivity (the investigation steps in processing microbiology samples)
MCV Mean cell volume
MDD Major depressive disorder
MDE Major depressive episode
MDS Myelodysplastic syndrome
M/E Microscopic examination
MEDLINE Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online
MEN Multiple endocrine neoplasia
MeSH Medical Subject Headings
MET Metabolic equivalent
met Metastasis (pronounced like the word met; plural mets)
Mg Magnesium
MgSO4 Magnesium sulfate
MGUS Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (unknown or uncertain may be substituted for undetermined)
MI Myocardial infarction
MIC Minimum inhibitory concentration
MICA Mental illness and chemical abuse;
mentally ill chemical abuser
MICU Mobile Intensive Care Unit
MLC Mixed lymphocyte culture
MLE Midline episiotomy
MM Myeloid metaplasia
M&M Morbidity & Mortality
MMPI Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
mod Moderate;
Modified
MODY Maturity onset diabetes of the young
Mo Monocytes
MOM Milk of magnesia
MOPP Mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone in combination (older treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma)
MPD(s) Myeloproliferative disease(s)
MPV Mean platelet volume
MR Mitral regurgitation
Modified release
Medical representative
Mental retardation
MRA Magnetic resonance angiography
MRCP Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography
MRG Murmurs, rubs, and gallops (see heart sounds)
MRI Magnetic resonance imaging
MRSA Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
MS Mitral stenosis
Multiple sclerosis
Medical student MS-1, MS-2, MS-3, MS-4 respectively
Mental status - Mental status examination
MSE Mental status examination
MSH Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
MSO4 Morphine or morphine sulfate
MSU Midstream urine sample (used in testing for presence of urinary tract infections)
MSUD Maple syrup urine disease
MT Metatarsal bone
MTBI Mild traumatic brain injury
MTP Metatarsalphalangeal joint
MTX Methotrexate
MVA Motor vehicle accident
MVC Motor vehicle crash
MVP Mitral valve prolapse
MVPS Mitral valve prolapse syndrome
MVR Mitral valve replacement

N

Abbrev. Meaning
Na Sodium (from Latin natrium)
NABS Normoactive bowel sounds
NAD No abnormality detected
no apparent distress
(and many variations of the above)
NAS No added salt
NB Newborn (infant)
Note well (please pay attention) (from Latin nota bene)
NBN Newborn nursery
NBTE Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis
NC Nerve action potential
Nasal cannula
NCC Noncompaction cardiomyopathy
NCS Nerve conduction study
NCT Nerve conduction test, aka nerve conduction study
NCV Nerve conduction velocity (see nerve conduction study)
ND (Examination) not done
NE Norepinephrine
Ne Neutrophil granulocytes
NEC Not elsewhere classified
Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis
Neg Negative
Neo Neoplasm
NES Not elsewhere specified
NFR Not for resuscitation
NGT
NG tube
Nasogastric tube (see intubation)
NGU Non-gonococcal urethritis
NHL Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
NICU Neonatal intensive care unit
NIDDM Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
NK
NK cells
Natural killer cells
NKA No known allergies
NKDA No known drug allergies
Nl Normal
NLP No light perception (highest degree of blindness)
NM Nuclear medicine
NMR Nuclear magnetic resonance
NNH Number needed to harm
NNT Number needed to treat
NO Nitric oxide
No. Number
NOF Neck of femur fracture (refers to hip fracture)
Non rep. Do not repeat
NOS Nitric oxide synthase;
Not otherwise specified
NPH Normal pressure hydrocephalus
Npl Neoplasm
NPO Nil per os (nothing by mouth)
NPTAC No previous tracing available for comparison
NRB Non-rebreather mask
NRBC Nucleated red blood cells
NREM Non-rapid eye movement
n.s. Not significant
NS Normal saline
NSA No significant abnormality
NSAID Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
NSCC Non-squamous-cell carcinoma
NSCLC Non-small cell lung cancer
NSD Normal spontaneous delivery (see childbirth)
NSE Neurospecific enolase
NSR Normal sinus rhythm
NST Non-stress test (see cardiotocograph)
NSTEMI Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction
NSU Non-specific urethritis
NT Not tested
NTG Nitroglycerin
NTT Nasotracheal tube (see intubation)
N&V
n/v
Nausea and vomiting
NVD Normal vaginal delivery (see childbirth);
Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
NVDC Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and constipation

O

Abbrev. Meaning
o Nothing
O2 Oxygen
OA Osteoarthritis
OB-GYN Obstetrics and Gynecology
Obl Oblique
OBS Organic brain syndrome
Occ Occasional
OCD Obsessive-compulsive disorder
OCG Oral cholecystogram
OCNA Old chart not available - Medical history
OCP Oral contraceptive pill
OCT Optical Coherence Tomography
OD Right eye from Latin, oculus dexter
Overdose
Occupational disease
od Every day, usually regarded as once daily, from the Latin, omni die. Generally written in lower case.
OE Otitis externa
O/E On examination
OGTT Oral glucose tolerance test
OHL Oral hairy leukoplakia
Oint Ointment
OM Otitis media
om Every morning, from the Latin, omni mane. Generally written in lower case.
OME Otitis Media with Effusion - fluid in the inner ear without other symptoms.
on Every night, from the Latin, omni nocte. Generally written in lower case.
OOB Out of bed
OP Outpatient department
O&P Ova and parasites
OPD Outpatient department
OPPT Oriented to person place and time
OPV Outpatient visit
OR Operating room, operating theatre
ORIF Open reduction internal fixation
ORSA Oxacillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus
ORT Oral rehydration therapy
OS Left eye from Latin, oculus sinister
OS Orthopedic surgery
OSA Obstructive sleep apnea
OSH Outside hospital
Osm Osmolarity
Osteo Osteomyelitis
OT Occupational therapy
OTC Over-the-counter drug
OTD Out the Door (discharged)
OTPP Oriented to time place and person
OU Both eyes, from Latin, oculi uterque
oz Ounce

P

Abbrev. Meaning
p (p with a bar over it) after, from Latin, post
P Parturition (total number of live births)
Phosphorus
Pulse
Post
PA Posterior-anterior, posteroanterior
Pulmonary artery
Physician Assistant
P&A Percussion and auscultation
PAC Premature atrial contraction
Pulmonary artery catheter, Pulmonary artery catheterisation
PAD Peripheral artery disease - Peripheral artery occlusive disease
PAF Platelet activating factor
Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (meaning intermittent AF)
PAH Pulmonary arterial hypertension
Phenylalanine hydroxylase
PAI-1 Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1
PAL Posterior axillary line
PALS Pediatric Advanced Life Support
PAN Polyarteritis nodosa
PAO Peak Acid Output
PAOD Peripheral artery occlusive disease
PAP Papanicolaou stain
Positive airway pressure
Pulmonary artery pressure - Pulmonary hypertension
Pap Papanicolaou Test (pap smear)
PARA I Indicating a woman with one child (partus = birth)
PARA II Indicating a woman with two children (partus = birth)
PAT Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia
PBF Peripheral blood film
p.c. After food, from Latin, post cibum
After meals
PCA Patient-controlled analgesia
PCa Prostate cancer
PCD Postconcussional disorder
Primary ciliary dyskinesia
PCI Percutaneous coronary intervention
PCL Posterior cruciate ligament
PCN Penicillin
PCNSL Primary CNS (central nervous system) lymphoma
PCO Polycystic ovary - polycystic ovarian syndrome
PCOS Polycystic ovarian syndrome
PCP (Formerly Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia) - Pneumocystis pneumonia
Primary Care Physician/Primary Care Provider
PCR Patient Care Report
Polymerase chain reaction
PCS Post-concussion syndrome
PCV Packed cell volume - Hematocrit
Polycythemia vera
PCWP Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure
PD Parkinson's disease
Peritoneal dialysis
Physical diagnosis
PDA Patent ductus arteriosus
PDE Phosphodiesterase
PDGF Platelet derived growth factor
PDR Physicians' Desk Reference
PDT Photodynamic Therapy
PE Pulmonary embolism
[Pre-eclampsia]
Physical examination
PEA Pulseless electrical activity
PEEP Positive end expiratory pressure
PEF Peak expiratory flow
PEFR Peak expiratory flow rate
PEG Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy
pen Penicillin (Best practice is to avoid drug name abbreviations)
PEP Post exposure prophylaxis
PERRL Pupils equal, round, reactive to light (e.g. "pupils PERRL")
PERLA Pupils equal and reactive to light and accommodation
PERRLA Pupils equal, round, reactive to light and accommodation
Per Vag Per vaginam
PET Positron-emission tomography (cerebral metabolic scan)
PFO Patent foramen ovale
PFT Pulmonary function test - Spirometry
PGCS Paediatric Glasgow Coma Scale
PH Pulmonary hypertension
Past history - medical history
PHx Past history - medical history
PHTLS Prehospital trauma life support
PI Present illness
PICC Peripherally inserted central catheter
PID Pelvic inflammatory disease
Prolapsed intervertibral disc
PIH Pregnancy induced hypertension
PIP Proximal interphalangeal joint
PKA Protein kinase A
PKD Polycystic kidney disease
PKU Phenylketonuria (PKU card - Guthrie test)
PLAT Tissue plasminogen activator
PLT Platelets
PM Post meridiem
In the afternoon
PMB Post-menopausal bleeding (bleeding after menopause)
PMH Past medical history
Perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage
PMI Point of maximal impulse or apical beat
Point of maximal intensity
PML Polyoma virus
PMP Pseudomyxoma peritonei
PMN Polymorphonuclear leukocytes, i.e., Neutrophils
PMR Percutaneous myocardial revascularisation
Polymyalgia rheumatica
PM&R Physical medicine and rehabilitation
PND Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
Postnasal drip
PNH Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
PNM Perinatal mortality
PO By mouth (orally), from Latin, per os
POD postoperative days
poly Polymorphonuclear cells, ie Neutrophils
Post Posterior - anatomical terms of location
POX Peroxidase
PP Pulse pressure
Postpartum - postnatal
PPCS Prolonged post-concussion syndrome
PPD Packs per day (Cigarettes)
Postpartum depression - Postnatal depression
Purified protein derivative or Mantoux test, for tuberculosis testing
PPH Postpartum haemorrhage
Primary pulmonary hypertension
Procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids
PPI Proton pump inhibitor
PPROM Preterm premature rupture of membranes
PPS Post-polio syndrome
Ppt Precipitate
Precipitating
PPTCT Prevention of parent-to-child transmission (of HIV: Govt of India)
PPTL Post-partum tubal ligation
PR Prothrombin ratio
p.r. Per rectum (as noun: rectal examination)
PRA Plasma renin activity
PRBC Packed red blood cells
Preme Premature infant - premature birth
Prep Preparation
PRIND Prolonged reversible ischemic neurologic deficit
prn
PRN
As necessary, from Latin, pro re nata (if used in chronic pain control disparagingly termed "pain relief nil")
As needed
Prog Prognosis
PROM Premature rupture of membranes
PRP Panretinal photocoagulation
Progressive rubella panencephalitis
PRV Polycythemia rubra vera - polycythemia vera
PSA Prostatic specific antigen
PSH Psychosocial history
Past medical history
PSP Phenylsulphtalein
PSS Progressive systemic sclerosis - scleroderma
PT Prothrombin time
Physical therapy (physiotherapy)
Pt. Patient, from Latin patiens, meaning "one who endures" or "one who suffers"
PTA Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty
Post-traumatic amnesia
Prior to admission
PTB Pulmonary tuberculosis
PTC Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography
PTCA Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
PTD Prior to discharge
PTH Parathyroid hormone
PTHC Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography
PTSD Posttraumatic stress disorder
PTSS Posttraumatic stress syndrome - posttraumatic stress disorder
PTT Partial thromboplastin time
PTx Pneumothorax
PUD Peptic ulcer disease
PUO Pyrexia of unknown origin
PUVA Psoralen UV A (photochemical ultraviolet light A waves)
p.v. Per vagina (as noun: vaginal examination with manual examination and speculum inspection)
PVC (VPC) Premature ventricular contraction
PVD Peripheral vascular disease
PVFS Post-viral fatigue syndrome
PVR Pulmonary vascular resistance
PVS Persistent vegetative state
Pulmonary valve stenosis
Plummer-Vinson syndrome
PWP Pulmonary Wedge Pressure
Px
px
Physical examination
Px Prognosis
P-Y Pack-years (years of smoking one package of cigarettes per day)

Q

Abbrev. Meaning
Q Perfusion
q Each, every (from Latin quaque)
q.a.d. Every other day (from Latin quaque altera die)
QALY Quality-adjusted life year
q.AM Every morning (from Latin quaque ante meridiem)
q.d. Each day (from Latin quaque die)
(deprecated; use "daily" instead. See the do-not-use list)
q.d.s. Four times each day, (from Latin quater die sumendus)
q.h. Each hour (from Latin quaque hora)
q.h.s. Every bedtime (from Latin quaque hora somni)
q.i.d. Four times each day (from Latin quater in die)
(not deprecated, but consider using "four times a day" instead. See the do-not-use list)
q.l. As much as you like (from Latin quantum libet)
q.m.t. Every month
q.n. Every night
QNS
q.n.s.
Quantity not sufficient
q.o.d. Every other day
(deprecated; use "every other day" instead. See the do-not-use list)
QOF Quality and Outcomes Framework system for payment of GPs in the UK National Health Service
q.o.h. Every other hour
q.s. As much as suffices (from Latin quantum satis or quantum sufficit)
qt Quart
q.v. Which see (from Latin quod vide);
as much as you please (from Latin quantum vis)
q.w.k. Weekly

R

Abbrev. Meaning
RA Refractory anaemia
Rheumatoid arthritis
Right atrium
RAD Reflex anal dilatation
Right Axis Deviation
Reactive Airway Disease
Rad hys Radical hysterectomy
RAI Radioactive Iodine
RAPD Relative afferent pupillary defect
RAS Renal artery stenosis
RBBB Right bundle branch block
RBC Red blood cells, Red blood count
RBLM Recurrent benign lymphocytic meningitis
RCA Right coronary artery
RCM Restrictive cardiomyopathy
Right costal margin
RCT Randomized controlled trial
RD Retinal detachment
RDS Respiratory distress syndrome - Infant respiratory distress syndrome
RDW Red cell distribution width
REM Rapid eye movement
RF Rheumatoid factor
Rheumatic fever
RFLP Restriction fragment length polymorphism
RFT Renal function test
r/g/m Rubs/gallops/murmurs - heart sounds
Rh Rhesus factor
RHD Rheumatoid heart disease
RhF Rheumatoid factor
RIA Radioimmunoassay
RIBA Radioimmunoblotting assay
RICE Rest, ice, compression, and elevation (treatment for a soft tissue injury)
RIMA Reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A
RIND Reversible ischemic neurologic deficit
RL Ringer's lactate; lactated Ringer's solution
RLE Right lower extremity
RLL Right lower lobe - lung
RLN Recurrent laryngeal nerve;
Regional lymph node
RLQ Right lower quadrant
RML Right middle lobe - lung
RNA Ribonucleic acid
RNP Ribonucleoprotein
RNV Radionuclear Ventriculography
ROM Range of motion
R/O Rule Out
ROA Right occipital anterior - childbirth
ROP Right occipital posterior - childbirth
ROS Review of systems
ROSC Return of spontaneous circulation
RPR Rapid plasma reagin test
RR Respiratory rate
Blood pressure measured with a specific sphygmomanometer
RRR Regular rate and rhythm - pulse
RS cell Reed-Sternberg cell
RSI Rapid sequence induction
RSV Respiratory sncytial virus
RT Respiratory therapy
Reverse transcriptase
RT-PCR Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction
RTA Renal tubal acidosis
RTC Return to clinic (appointment for outpatient for next medical examination)
RTS Revised trauma score
RUE Right upper extremity
RUL Right upper lobe (of the lung)
RUQ Right upper quadrant (see also Human abdomen#Regions of the abdomen)
RV Residual volume
Right ventricle
RVAD Right ventricular assist device
RVF Right ventricular failure
RVH Right ventricular hypertrophy
RVSP Right ventricular systolic pressure
RVT Renal vein thrombosis
Rx or or Rx (R with crossed tail) medical prescription or Prescription drug

S

Abbrev. Meaning
s Without (s with a bar over it); from Middle English sans, borrowed from Old French sans, Latin sine
S Sacrum
Sx Symptoms
S1 First heart sound
S2 Second heart sound
SA Sinoatrial node
SAB Staphylococcal bacteremia
Spontaneous abortion - Miscarriage
SAH Subarachnoid hemorrhage
SAN Sinoatrial node
SAPS II Simplified acute physiology score
SAPS III Simplified acute physiology score
SARS Severe acute respiratory syndrome
SB Small bowel - small intestine
SBE Subacute bacterial endocarditis
SBO Small bowel obstruction
SBP Systolic blood pressure
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis
s.c. Subcutaneous from Latin, subcutis
SCC Squamous cell carcinoma
SCD Sudden cardiac death
SCLC Small cell lung cancer
SCID Severe combined immunodeficiency
Scope Microscope or endoscope
s.d. Subdermal
SD
σ
Standard deviation
SDH Subdural hematoma
Sed Sedimentation (rate) - Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
Segs Segmented cells
SEM Systolic ejection murmur - Heart murmur
SERT Serotonin transporter
SFA Superficial femoral artery
Serum folic acid
SGA Small for gestational age
SG cath Swan-Ganz catheter - pulmonary artery catheter
SGOT Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase
SGPT Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase
SH
SHx
Social history (personal habits, living situation, job)
SHBG Sex hormone-binding globulin
SHx Surgical history
SI International System of Units
Suicidal ideation
Seriously ill
Sacroiliacal (joint)
SIADH Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone
SICS Surgical intensive care unit
SIDS Sudden infant death syndrome
SIMV Synchronized intermittent mechanical ventilation
SIT Stress inoculation training - posttraumatic stress disorder
SK Streptokinase
sl Sublingual
SLE Systemic lupus erythematosus
SLEV St. Louis virus
SLR Straight leg raise - Lasègue's sign
SLL Small lymphocytic lymphoma
SM Multiple sclerosis from Latin, sclerosis multiplex
SMA Sequential multiple analysis;
Superior mesenteric artery
SMA-6 Six-channel serum multiple analysis
SMA-7 Serum metabolic assay
SMS Senior medical student
SMT Spinal manipulative therapy
SMV Superior mesenteric vein
SN Student nurse
SNB Sentinel node biopsy (ductal carcinoma]]
SNP Sodium nitroprusside;
Single nucleotide polymorphism
SNRI Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor
SNV Sin nombre virus, most common type of hantavirus
SOAP Subjective, objective, assessment, plan (how Doctors notes are organized)
SOB Shortness of breath - dyspnea
SOBOE Short of breath on exercise
SOL Space occupying lesion
Sol Solution
SOOB Send out of bed
SOS Save our souls, meaning "in case of emergency" [from Latin "si opus sit" having the same meaning]
SP
s/p
Status post
Spec Specimen
SPECT Single photon emission computed tomography
SPEP Serum protein electrophoresis
SPET Single photon emission tomography
Sp. fl. Spinal fluid - cerebrospinal fluid
Sp. gr. Specific gravity
SQ
sq
Subcutaneous
SR Slow release
SROM Spontaneous rupture of membranes
SS Hemoglobin SS (HbSS) - in Sickle-cell disease = SS disease
SSPE Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
ssRNA Single stranded RNA
SSRI Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
SSSS Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome
SSS Sick sinus syndrome
ST Heat stable
Staph. Staphylococcus
STD Sexually transmitted disease
STAT Shortest Turn Around Time. Immediately
STEC Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli, another name for enterohaemorrhagic E. coli
STEMI ST elevation MI (Myocardial infarction)
STH Somatotropic hormone
STI Sexually transmitted infection
Soft tissue injury
STNR Symmetrical tonic neck reflex
STOP Surgical termination of pregnancy (sometimes suction termination of pregnancy)
Strep.
Strepto.
Streptococcus
STS Serological test for syphilis
Subq Subcutaneous
Supp Suppository
SV Seminal vesicle
Stroke volume
SVC Superior vena cava
SVD Spontaneous vaginal delivery
Simple vertex delivery
SVI Systemic viral infection
SVN Small volume nebulizer
SVR Systemic vascular resistance
SVT Supraventricular tachycardia
Sx Surgery
Symptoms
SXA Single energy X-ray absorptiometer
SXR Skull x-ray
Sz Seizure

T

Abbrev. Meaning
T Thoracic vertebrae
Tx Transplatation
Traction
T&A Tonsillectomy with adenoidectomy
T&C Type an cross-match - Blood transfusion
Tab Tablet
TAB Therapeutic abortion
TAH Total abdominal hysterectomy
TAH-BSO Total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy
TB Tuberculosis
TBC Tuberculosis
Total body crunch
TBI Total body irradiation
Traumatic brain injury
TBLC Term birth living child
TC Traffic crash
TCC Transitional cell carcinoma
TCM Traditional Chinese medicine
TCN Tetracycline
TCT Thrombin clotting time
Td Tetanus and diphtheria
TdP Torsades de pointes
t.d.s. Three times a day, from Latin, ter die sumendus
TEB Thoracic electrical bioimpedance - impedance cardiography
TEE Transesophageal echocardiogram
TEM Transmission electron microscopy
Temp Temperature
TENS Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator
TERN "Intern"
TF Transfer
T/F Transfer
TFTs Thyroid function tests
TGA Transposition of the great arteries
TG Triglycerides
Tg Thyroglobulin
TGF Tumor growth factor
TGV Transposition of the great vessels
T&H Type and hold - (stay ready for blood transfusion)
THR Total hip replacement
TIA Transient ischemic attack
TIBC Total iron binding capacity
Tib-Fib Tibia and fibula
t.i.d. Three times a day, from Latin, ter in die
TIPS Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt
TKO To keep (vein) open for IV therapy
TKR Total knee replacement
TKVO To keep vein open
TLC Total lung capacity
Tender loving care
TLR Tonic labyrinthine reflex
TM Tympanic membrane
TMB "Too Many Birthdays" Very frail elderly patient
TME Total mesorectal excision
TNF Tumor necrosis factors
TMJ Temporomandibular joint
TNG Trinitroglycerin
TNM Tumor-nodes-metastases
TOA Tuboovarian abscess
TOD Transoesophageal doppler
TOE Transoesophageal echocardiogram
TOF Tetralogy of fallot
TOP Termination of pregnancy
TP Total protein]]
TPa Tissue plasminogen activator
TPN Total parenteral nutrition
TPR Temperature, pulse, respiration
TR Tricuspid regurgitation
Tr Tincture
TRAM Transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap (TRAM flap)
TRAP Tartarate resistant acid phosphatase
TRF Transfer (pronounced "turf")
TRF'd Transferred (Pronounced "turfed", as in "We just turfed Mrs Johnson OTD")
TRH Thyrotropin releasing hormone
TS Tricuspid stenosis
Tsp Teaspoon (5 ml)
TSH Thyroid stimulating hormone
T.S.T.H. Too sick to send home
TT Thrombin time
TTE Transthoracic echocardiogram
TTO To take out (medicines given to patient on discharge from hospital stay)
TTP Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
TTP Tender to palpation
TTR Transthyretin
TTS Transdermal therapeutic system
TTTS Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome
Tu Tumor
TUR Transurethral resection
TURBT Transurethral resection of bladder tumour
TURP Transurethral resection of the prostate
TVH Total vagina hysterectomy
Tx Transplant
Treatment

U

Abbrev. Meaning
UA urinalysis
UBT urea breath test
UC ulcerative colitis
UCHD usual childhood diseases (see list of childhood diseases)
UD as directed (from Latin ut dictum)
UDS urine drug screening
UE upper extremity
U&E urea and electrolytes (blood test) (for sodium and potassium, and often creatinine)
UIP Usual interstitial pneumonitis
UGI upper gastrointestinal
UOP Urinary Output
Ung ointment (from Latin unguentum)
Unk unknown
UPJ ureteropelvic junction (see pyeloplasty)
URA unilateral renal agenesis
URI upper respiratory infection
URTI upper respiratory tract infection
US ultrasonogram
USG ultrasonogram
USP United States Pharmacopeia
USR unheated serum reagin
USS ultrasound scan
UTI urinary tract infection
UVAL ultraviolet argon laser

V

Abbrev. Meaning
V Ventilation
VA visual acuity
VAD Ventricular assist device
Vincristine adriblastine dexamethasone
Vag Vaginal
VAMP Vincristine adriblastine methylprednisone
VBAC Vaginal birth after caesarean
VC Vital capacity
VCTC Voluntary counselling and testing centers (for HIV: Govt Centres in India)
vCJD Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
VD Venereal disease
Vaginal delivery
Volume of distribution
VDRF Ventilator dependent respiratory failure
VDRL Venereal Diseases Research Laboratory (old test for syphilis)
VE Vaginal examination (manual examination)
VEE Venezuelan equine encephalitis
VEB Ventricular ectopic beat
VF
V-fib
Ventricular fibrillation
VIP Vasoactive intestinal peptide
VLDL Very low density lipoprotein
VMA Vanillylmandelic acid
Violent mechanical asphyxia
VNPI VanNuys prognostic scoring index (ductal carcinoma)
VO Verbal order
VOD Volume of distribution
VPA Valproic acid
VPAP Variable positive airway pressure
VPB Ventricular premature beats - premature ventricular contraction
VPC (PVC) Ventricular premature contraction
V/Q Ventilation/Perfusion scan
VRE Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus
VRSA Vancomycin-resistant staphylococcus aureus
VS Vital signs (VSS = vital signs stable)
VSD Ventricular septal defect
VSR Ventricular septal rupture - myocardial rupture
VT Ventricular tachycardia
Verotoxin
VTE Venous thromboembolism
VTEC Verotoxin producing Escherichia coli, also known as enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli
VZV Varicella zoster virus

W

Abbrev. Meaning
w/ With
WAP Wandering atrial pacemaker (see multifocal atrial tachycardia)
WAT White adipose tissue
WBC White blood cell
White blood cell count
WC White cells
W/C Wheelchair
WD Well developed
WDL Within defined limits (as per hospital defined policy)
WH Well hydrated (not dehydrated or hyperhydrated)
WDWN Well developed and well nourished
WEE Western equine encephalitis virus
WG Wegener's granulomatosis
WN Well nourished
WNL Within normal limits (also: we never looked)
W/O
w/o
Without
WPW Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome
WS Waardenburg syndrome;
Warkany syndrome;
Water-soluble;
Werner syndrome;
West syndrome;
Williams syndrome;
Wolfram syndrome
wt Weight
WWI Walking while intoxicated (ethanol or other drugs);
World War I

X

Abbrev. Meaning
x (x with macron) except
XR Extended release;
X-ray radiography
XRT Radiation therapy

Y

Abbrev. Meaning
y Year
YO
yo
Years old

Z

Abbrev. Meaning
ZD Zinc deficiency
ZIFT Zygote intrafallopian transfer

 

See also

Bibliography

  • Davis, Neil M. (2008). Medical Abbreviations: 30,000 Conveniences at the Expense of Communication and Safety (14th ed.). Warminster, PA, USA: Neil M Davis Associates. ISBN 978-0-931431-14-2. 
  • Jablonski, Stanley (2008). Jablonski's Dictionary of Medical Acronyms and Abbreviations with CD-ROM (6th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders. ISBN 978-1-4160-5899-1. 
  • Sloane, Sheila B. (1997). Medical Abbreviations & Eponyms (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders. ISBN 978-0-7216-7088-1. 

External links



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Published - December 2008


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