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Abbreviations in use in 1911



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This is a list of abbreviations used in the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, published in 1911.

The import of these will often be readily understood from the context in which they occur. There is no occasion to explain here the common abbreviations used for Christian names, books of Scripture, months of the year, points of the compass, grammatical and mathematical terms, or familiar titles, like Mr, &c.

The ordinary abbreviations, now or recently in use, may be conveniently classified under the following headings:

Abbreviated titles and designations

A.A.              Associate of Arts.
A.B.              Able-bodied seaman; (in America) 
                  Bachelor of Arts.
A.D.C.            Aide-de-Camp.
A.M.              Artium Magister, Master of Arts.
A.R.A.            Associate of the Royal Academy.
A.R.I.B.A.        Associate of the Royal Institute of 
                  British Architects.
A.R.S.A.          Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy.
B.A.              Bachelor of Arts.
Bart.             Baronet.
B.C.L.            Bachelor of Civil Law.
B.D.              Bachelor of Divinty.
B.LL.             Bachelor of Laws.
B.Sc.             Bachelor of Science.
C.                Chairman.
C.A.              Chartered Accountant.
C.B.              Companion of the Bath.
C.E.              Civil Engineer.
C.I.E.            Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire.
C.M.              Chirurgiae Magister, Master in Surgery.
C.M.G.            Companion of St Michael and St George.
C.S.I.            Companion of the Star of India.
D.A., D.Arts.     Doctor of Arts; D.A. also District Attorney
D.C.L.            Doctor of Civil Law.
D.D.              Doctor of Divinity.
D.F.A.            Doctor of Fine Arts
D.Lit., Litt. D.  Doctor of Literature.
D.M.              Doctor of Medicine (Oxford).
D.M.A.            Doctor of Musical Arts.
D.M.L.            Doctor of Modern Languages.
D.Sc.             Doctor of Science.
D.S.O.            Distinguished Service Order.
D.S.W.            Doctor of Social Work.
Ebor.             Eboracensis of York.2
F.C.S.            Fellow of the Chemical Society.
F.D.              Fidei Defensor, Defender of the Faith.
F.F.P.S.          Fellow of the Faculty of Physicians and 
                  Surgeons (Glasgow)
F.G.S.            Fellow of the Geological Society.
F.K.Q.C.P.I.      Fellow of King and Queen's College of 
                  Physicians in Ireland.
F.L.S.            Fellow of the Linnaean Society.
F.M.              Field Marshal.
F.P.S.            Fellow of the Philological Society.
F.R.A.S.          Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society.
F.R C.P.          Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians.
F.R.C.P.E.        Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians 
                  of Edinburgh.
F.R.C.S.          Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons.
F.R.G.S.          Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society
F.R.H.S.          Fellow of the Royal Horticultural Society
F.R.Hist.Soc.     Fellow of the Royal Historical Society
F.R.I.B.A.        Fellow of the Royal Institute of 
                  British Architects
F.R.S.            Fellow of the Royal Society
F.R.S.A.          Fellow of the Royal Society for 
                  the encouragement of Arts, 
                  Manufactures & Commerce
F.R.S.E.          Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh
F.R.S.L.          Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature
F.S.A.            Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries
F.S.S.            Fellow of the Statistical Society
F.Z.S.            Fellow of the Zoological Society
G.C.B.            Knight Grand Cross of the Bath
G.C.H.            Knight Grand Cross of Hanover
G.C.I.E.          Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the 
                  Indian Empire
G.C.M.G.          Knight Grand Cross of St Michael and St George
G.C.S.I.          Knight Grand Commander of the Star of India
G.C.V.O.          Knight Grand Commander of the Victorian Order
H.H.              His (Her) Highness
H.I.H.            His (Her) Imperial Highness
H.I.M.            His (Her) Imperial Majesty
H.M.              His (Her) Majesty
H.R.H.            His (Her) Royal Highness
H.S.H.            His (Her) Serene Highness
J.                Judge
J.C.D.            Juris Canonici Doctor, or Juris 
                  Civilis Doctor), 
                  Doctor of Canon or Civil Law
J.D.              Juris Doctor, Doctor of Law
J.U.D.            Juris utriusque Doctor, Doctor of Civil 
                  and Canon Law
J.P.              Justice of the Peace
K.C.              King's Counsel
K.C.B.            Knight Commander of the Bath
K.C.I.E.          Knight Commander of the Order of the 
                  Indian Empire
K.C.M.G.          Knight Commander of St Michael and 
                  St George
K.C.S.I.          Knight Commander of the Star of India
K.C.V.O.          Knight Commander of the Victorian Order
K.G.              Knight of the Garter
K.P.              Knight of St Patrick
K.T.              Knight of the Thistle
L.A.H.            Licentiate of the Apothecaries' Hall
L.C.C.            London County Council, or Councillor
L.C.J.            Lord Chief Justice
L.J.              Lord Justice
L.L.A.            Lady Literate in Arts
LL.B.             Legum Baccalaureus, Bachelor of Laws
LL.D.             Legum Doctor, Doctor of Laws
LL.M.             Legum Magister, Master of Laws
L.R.C.P.          Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians
L.R.C.S.          Licentiate of the Royal College of Surgeons
L.S.A.            Licentiate of the Apothecaries' Society
M.A.              Master of Arts
M.B.              Medicinae Baccalaureus, Bachelor of Medicine
M.C.              Member of Congress
M.D.              Medicinae Doctor, Doctor of Medicine
M.Inst.C.E.       Member of the Institute of Civil Engineers
M.P.              Member of Parliament
M.R.              Master of the Rolls
M.R.C.P.          Member of the Royal College of Physicians
M.R.C.S.          Member of the Royal College of Surgeons
M.R.I.A.          Member of the Royal Irish Academy
Mus.B.            Bachelor of Music
Mus.D.            Doctor of Music
M.V.O.            Member of the Victorian Order
N.P.              Notary Public
O.M.              Order of Merit
P.C.              Privy Councillor
Ph.D.             Philosophiae Doctor, Doctor of Philosophy
P.P.              Parish Priest
P.R.A.            President of the Royal Academy
R.                Rex, Regina, King, Queen
R. & I.           Rex et Imperator
R.A.              Royal Academician, Royal Artillery
R.A.M.            Royal Academy of Music
R.E.              Royal Engineers
Reg. Prof.        Regius Professor
R.M.              Royal Marines, Resident Magistrate
R.N.              Royal Navy
S. or St.         Saint
S.J.              Society of Jesus
S.S.C.            Solicitor before the Supreme Courts 
                  of Scotland
S.T.B.            Sacrae Theologiae Baccalaureus, Bachelor 
                  of Sacred Theology
S.T.D.            Sacrae Theologiae Doctor, Doctor of 
                  Sacred Theology
S.T.L.            Sacrae Theologiae Licentiatus, Licentiate 
                  of Sacred Theology
S.T.P.            Sacrosanctae Theologiae Professor, 
                  Professor of Sacred Theology
V.C.              Vice-Chancellor, Victoria Cross
V.G.              Vicar-General
V.S.              Veterinary Surgeon
W.S.              Writer to the Signet [in Scotland] 
                  Equivalent to Attorney

Abbreviations denoting moneys, weights, and measures

ac.            acre.
bar.           barrel.
bus.           bushel.
c.             cent.
c. (or cub.) ft. &c.   cubic foot,&c.
cwt.           Hundredweight.
d.             denarius, penny.
deg.           degree.
dr.            drachm or dram.
dwt.           pennyweight.
f.             franc.
fl.            florin.
ft.            foot.
fur.           furlong.
gal.           gallon.
gr.            grain.
h.             hour.
hhd.           hogshead.
in.            inch.
kg             kilogram   
km             kilometre
L.,3 L., 2 or l.         libra, pound (money).
lb. or lb.     libra, pound (weight).
m. or mi.      mile, minute.
m.             minim.
mo.            month.
na.            nail.
oz.            ounce.
pk.            peck.
po.            pole.
pt.            pint.
q.             quadrans, farthing.
qr.            quarter.
qt.            quart.
ro.            rood.
Rs.            4 rupees.
s. or / solidus, shilling.
s              second
sc. or scr.    scruple.
sq. ft. &c,    square foot, &c.
st.            stone.
yd.            yard.

also see SI units for measures in metres, grams, and litres.

Miscellaneous abbreviations

A.             Accepted.
A.C.           Ante Christum, Before Christ.
acc., a/c. or acct.    Account.
A.D.           Anno Domini, In the year of our Lord.
A.E.I.O.U.     Austriae est imperare orbi universo,5
               or Alles Erdreich Ist Oesterreich 
               Unterthan.
Aet. or Aetat. Aetatis, [anno]), In the year of his age.
A.H.           Anno Hegirae, In the year of the Hegira 
               (the Islamic era).
A.M.           Anno Mundi, In the year of the world.
A.M.           Ante meridiem, Forenoon.
A.M.D.G        Ad Majorem Dei Gloria
Anon.          Anonymous.
A.U.C.         Anno urbis conditae, In the year from 
               the building of the city (i.e. Rome).
A.V.           Authorized version of the Bible.
b.             born.
B.V.M.         The Blessed Virgin Mary.
B.C.           Before Christ.
c.             circa, about.
C. or Cap.     (Caput), Chapter.
C.             Celsius Thermometer.
cent.6 (Centnim), A hundred, frequently L. 100.
Cf. or cp.     (Confer), Compare.
Ch. or Chap.   Chapter.
C.M.S.         Church Missionary Society.
Co.            Company, County.
C.O.D.         Cash on Delivery.
Cr.            Creditor.
curt.          Current, the present month.
d.             died.
D.G.           Dei gratia, By the grace of God.
Do.            Ditto, the same.
D.O.M.         Deo Optimo Maximo, To God the Best 
               and Greatest.
Dr.            Debtor.
D.V.           Deo volente, God willing.
E.& O.E.       Errors and omissions excepted.
e.g.           Exempli gratia, For the sake of example.
etc. or &c.    Et caetera, And the rest; and so forth.
Ex.            Example.
F. or Fahr.    Fahrenheit's Thermometer.
fec.           Fecit, He made (or did) it.
fl.            floruit, Flourished.
Fo. or Fol.    Folio.
f.o.b.         Free on board.
G.P.O.         General Post Office.
H.M.S.         His Majesty's Ship, or Service.
Ib. or Ibid.   Ibidem, In the same place.
Id.            Idem, The same.
i.e.           Id est, That is.
I.H.S.         A symbol for ``Jesus,', derived from the first 
               three letters of the Greek (I E S); the correct 
               origin was lost sight of, and the Romanized 
               letters were then interpreted erroneously 
               as standing for Jesus, Hominum Salvator, 
               the Latin h and Greek long e being confused.
I.M.D.G.       In majorem Dei gloriam, To the greater 
               glory of God.
Inf.           Infra, Below.
Inst.          Instant, the present month.
I.O.U.         I owe you.
i.q.           Idem quod, The same as.
k.t.l.         Greek kai ta loipa, Et caetera, and the rest.
L. or Lib.     Liber, Book.
Lat.           Latitude.
l.c.           Loco citato, In the place cited.
Lon. or Long.  Longitude.
L.S.           Locus sigilli, The place of the seal.
Mem.           Memento, Remember, Memorandum.
MS.            Manuscript.
MSS.           Manuscripts.
N.B.           Nota bene, Mark well; take notice.
N.B.           North Britain (i.e. Scotland).
N.D.           No date.
nem. con.      Nemine contradicente, No one contradicting.
No.            Numero, Number.
N.S.           new style, i.e., according to 
               the Gregorian calendar
N.T.           New Testament.
ob.            Obiit, Died.
Obs.           Obsolete.
O.H.M.S.       On His Majesty's Service.
O.S.           Old Style, i.e., according to 
               the Julian calendar
O.S.B.         Ordo Sancti Benedicti (Benedictines).
O.T.           Old Testament.
P.             Page.
Pp.            Pages.
@              Per, For; e.g. @ lb., For one pound.
Pinx.          Pinxit, He painted it.
P.M.           Post Meridiem, Afternoon.
P.O.           Post Office, Postal Order.
P.O.O.         Post Office Order.
p.p.           per procurationem, Signed on behalf 
               of another person.
P.P.C.         Pour prendre conge, To take leave.
P.R.           Prize-ring.
prox.          Proximo [mense], Next month.
P.S.           Postscript.
Pt.            Part.
p.t. or pro tem.       Pro tempore, For the time.
P.T.O.         Please turn over.
Q., Qu., or Qy.        Query; Question.
q.d.           Quasi dicat, As if he should say: as much 
               as to say.
Q.E.D.         Quod erat demonstrandum, Which was to 
               be demonstrated.
Q.E.F.         Quod erat faciendum, Which was to be done.
q.s. or quant. suff.   Quantum sufficit, As much as 
               is sufficient.
q.v.           Quod vide, Which see.
R. or @.       Recipe, Take.
sqrt.          (=r. for radix), The sign of the square root.
R.I.P.         Requiescat in pace!, May he rest in peace!
R.S.V.P.       French Respondez s'il vous plait, 
               please reply.
sc.            Scilicet, Namely; that is to say.
Sc. or Sculp.  Sculpsit, He engraved it.
S.D.U.K.       Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge.
seq. or sq., seqq. or sqq.     Sequens, sequentia, 
               The following.
sp.            Sine prole, Without offspring.
S.P.C.K.       Society for the Promotion of Christian 
               Knowledge
S.P.G.         Society for the Propagation of the Gospel.

 


Published - September 2008


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