Esperanto
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Esperanto




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La lingva defio
La teksto ĉi-sube afiŝita prezentas en Esperanto eltiraĵojn el la franclingva libro de Claude Piron "Le défi des Langues", kun resumo de la partoj ne reproduktitaj. La leganto de ĉi tiu teksto tiel ricevos ideon pri la enhavo de la libro, kiu ekzistas ĝis nun nur en la franca (Parizo: L'Harmattan, 1994) kaj en la portugala (Campinas SP: Pontes, 2002)
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Observi, kompari, elekti
Kiel faras homoj por kompreni sin reciproke, kiam ili ne parolas la saman lingvon? Ĉiaj metodoj estas aplikataj, jen bonegaj, jen dubkvalitaj, jen justaj, jen nepravigeble favorantaj parton de la koncernatoj. Gestoj, galimatio (t.e. provo esprimi sin per nur kelkaj vortoj de neregata lingvo), fuŝa angla aŭ "globiŝa", interpretista perado, bona angla kaj Esperanto kunformas la menuon de la ĉefaj ebloj
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Esperanto taŭgas kiel jura lingvo
Laŭ EU la ĉefa manko de Esperanto estas ĝia neprecizeco. Almenaŭ tiel ŝajnas laŭ la nova prilingva retejo de EU, kiu konstatas ke "vortoj sen ligo al historio aŭ al viva kulturo ne estas sufiĉe precizaj por juraj celoj". Claude Piron laboris kiel tradukisto ĉe Unuiĝintaj Nacioj. Li pro siaj propraj spertoj opinias ke Esperanto estus pli bona esprimilo ol la nunaj naciaj lingvoj pri juraj aferoj - sed ke ja necesos kelkaj jardekoj por ke la tradicio kompletiĝu kaj firmiĝu
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Esperanto, ĉu verko de Dio ?
Kiu provas grimpi supren direkte al Dio, tiu survoje renkontas sekvon de plej diversaj tentoj kaj miraĝoj. Feliĉe abundas kriterioj por distingi ion dian disde delogo bremsa aŭ instiga al malbonfaro. Se realaĵo devenas de Dio, ĝi neniam estos pure materia. Ĝi strebos al amo, respekto, interkompreniĝo. Ĝi ne serĉos la aprobon de snoboj kaj potenculoj, sed al humiluloj ĝi havigos profundajn ĝojojn radikantajn pli en esto ol en havo
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Malĝusta kompreno pri Esperanto ĉe iuj lingvistoj
Studante diversajn aspektojn de interkultura komunikado, Claude Piron ekkonsciis, ke profesiaj lingvistoj ofte havas pri Esperanto ideojn ne akordajn kun la realo
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Interparolo kun Claude Piron, verkisto esperanta
- Claude Piron, vian famon de poeto kaj verkisto oni konas de Brazilo ĝis Mongolio, de Litovio ĝis Japanio, fakte en la tuta mondo, tamen kie vi loĝas, en franclingva Svislando, neniu aŭdis pri vi. Kiel klarigi tiun paradokson?
- Min konas kiel verkiston nur tre malgranda nombro da homoj, sed estas vere, ke ili troviĝas en pli ol cent landoj.
- Kiel tio eblas?
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Lingva komunikado: kompara esploro farita surterene
Nia mondo malvastiĝas. Internaciaj komunikoj, komercaj, personaj kaj kulturaj, disvolviĝas kun impresa rapideco kaj vojaĝi al fora lando iĝis banala sperto por multaj personoj, kiuj neniel revus pri tio antaŭ apenaŭ kelkdeko da jaroj
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Esperanto el la vidpunkto de verkisto
Ĉiu lingvo havas sian propran spiriton, kiu faras el ĝi unikan manifestaĵon de la homa lingvokreemo. Tiurilate, ĉio prezentiĝas, kvazaŭ ĉiu unuopa lingva uzantaro havus sian generalan koncepton, plej ofte nekonscian, pri la arto komuniki; tiu maniero aliri komunikadon enkorpigas en kelkajn gvidliniojn aplikeblajn al la vortigo de la penso
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La rajto komuniki
Kvankam nia socio estas obsedata pri efikeco, tamen strange oni malmultege interesiĝas pri la rilato inter la investo en lingvolernadon kaj lingvajn servojn unuflanke, kaj, aliflanke, la rezulto de la enormaj sumoj tiel investataj. En la tuta mondo, milionoj da infanoj kaj adoleskantoj lernas fremdan lingvon dum multaj jaroj, kun rezultoj plejofte nekontentigaj aŭ tute mizeraj
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La unua devo estas alfronti realisme la situacion
Ni petis la konatan aŭtoron kaj psikologon Claude Piron komenti la lastatempajn problemojn inter la estraro kaj la Centra Oficejo de UEA. Jen kion li skribis
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La nova tutmonda lingvoordo: neracia kaj masoĥisma
- Profesoro, kion vi, kiel psikologo, opinias pri la nuna tutmonda lingvoordo?
- Ke ĝi reliefigas bedaŭrindajn trajtojn de la homa socio, ekzemple ĝian masoĥismon, ĝian emon agi neracie, la forton de ĝia inerteco kaj ĝian malinklinon rigardi al la realo fronte
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Kontribuaĵo al la studo pri la influoj de la jida sur Esperanton
La uzantoj de la jida kiuj parolas Esperanton, ofte sentas, ke inter la du lingvoj ekzistas vera simileco, kvankam tro subtila por esti facile demonstrebla. Ĉu tiu impreso havas bazon en la realo? La demando sin prezentas, kaj la celo de ĉi tiu artikolo estas aldoni al la temo kelkajn elementojn kiuj permesos eble progresi survoje al objektiva respondo
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Letero
Ĉar verŝajne ne multaj kundividas mian opinion, mi prezentos ĝin ĉi tie. Ke ĝi estas nekutima, tio eble dependas de mia profesio, pro kiu mi ĉiutage rilatas kun la nekonscia parto de la homoj
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Amo povas mortigi lingvon
Multaj politikistoj inter kiuj Michel Rocard, iama socialista ĉefministro de Mittterand, kiu estis jam prezidanto de komisiono pri kulturo de europa parlamento, indikas Svislandon kiel ekzemplon por subteni ke en Eŭropa Unio oni povas kunvivi plurlingve
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Esperanto : Kiaj perspektivoj post unu jarcento ?
Verŝajne, kiam mi parolis pri tiu tago de 1905 kiel ĉefmomento de la homa historio, la plimulto el vi pensis : "Nu, li vere troigas". Eble. Sed mia opinio ne estas senbaza.
Min ege impresis fakto, pri kiu mi legis en Unesko-dokumento. Antaŭ longe, afrika tribestro, kiun oni provis konvinki, ke utilas kapabli skribi kaj legi, rifuzis tion kredi. Oni do proponis al li eksperimenton. Li diru ion, ion ajn, al iu, kiu notos liajn parolojn, kaj la paperon oni portos al alia vilaĝo, kaj li akompanos tiujn, kiuj portos ĝini
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Kial mi kredas je Esperanto?
Ĉio povas esti elmetata al objektiva, scienca analizo. Eĉ io tute subjektiva. Do ankaŭ tiu demando. Rimarku, ke, kvankam la kialoj de mia kredo je Esperanto estas subjektivaj, la fakto, ke mi kredas, estas objektiva. Ke mi tenas min ĉe tiu opinio, kaj ne alia, tio estas objektiva fakto. Se iu sciencisto el ekstere observos min, li konstatos, ke mi kredas je Eo. Tiun objektivan fakton mi proponas, ke ni provu science, objektive analizi
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The Trilingual European: a realistic expectation?
The idea of a generalized trilingualism has been finding support all over Europe. Language teaching, we are told, must turn every young European into a trilingual citizen. But what does trilingual mean? Proficient, and fully so, in two languages other than one's mother tongue?
English Esperanto Français Italiano Portuguese

Translation in international organizations
In July 1977, the Joint Inspection Unit of the United Nations published a document entitled The Implications of Additional Languages in the United Nations System. This document assembled in one place a great deal of data on the language services in the UN system - more than had ever been brought together before
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Article in "Cafebabel" (Victoria Donovan)
The Esperanto option, you say, "would inevitably result in politicians speaking a different language to their electorate, effectively taking the demos out of democracy"
English Français

Betting on Esperanto
It all began in the 1870's in a part of the Tsarist Empire which is now Poland. Four languages were then spoken in the town of Bialystok: Polish, Yiddish, Russian and German. It was a traumatic experience for boy growing up there, in a town fragmented by four communities, four religions, four languages (with four alphabets) and four hatreds. It was a place where just to express yourself was to label yourself
English Français Nederlands

Learning From Translation Mistakes
As a former translator and reviser of translations, I find it very difficult to believe that a data processing system is really able to do the same job as a human translator. This is probably due to my lack of knowledge and understanding of how computers work. But whatever my incompetence in that field, I hope the examples I will draw from my experience in translation units will give you an interesting insight into some of the most frustrating problems encountered when transferring ideas from one language to another
English Deutsche

These Terrans Are Real Masochists
Stupidity is certainly the first hypothesis that comes to mind when you look at how the terrans organize their international communication. Look at this map. All these patches with different colors are countries, each one with its own government. Here s the United States. This one is called India, this one Angola, this one Italy there are many of them
English Français Española

Language constraints and human rights
The feeling that pervades the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is an aspiration towards fairness. But there is little awareness of the importance of fairness in the field of language and of the importance of language in the field of fairness. Society's attitude towards languages favors inequality everywhere
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Linguistic Communication - A Comparative Field Study
Our world is shrinking. International exchanges, commercial and cultural, are growing at a tremendous rate, and traveling to far away places is becoming a commonplace occurrence for many people for whom it was just unthinkable a few decades ago. At the same time, whole segments of populations are displaced in many parts of the world, refugees and people requesting political asylum are more and more numerous, as well as immigrants desperately looking for a standard of living they cannot expect to enjoy at home. As a result, language problems are developing in many areas…
English Français

The hidden perverse effects of the current system of international communication
There is so much interdependence in today's world that we can regard mankind, or even the Earth with all the living beings it nurtures, as one huge living organism. Once this working hypothesis, or this metaphor, is adopted, it becomes obvious that this living organism is sick: some parts are destroying the environment of which the organism has a vital need, others are acting like a cancer: overfeeding, they drain the resources of the whole for their own sake, while starving out the rest…
English Deutsche

Evolution Is Proof of Life
Those who are interested in the evolution of Esperanto are fortunate: the Esperanto community has always produced a huge amount of documents, so that there is no difficulty in researching the developments that more than a century of use has brought about in the language. A study of that documentation reveals that two factors, mainly, have modified the language proposed by L.L. Zamenhof: the substratum of the various users, on the one hand, and, on the other, the adjustments spontaneously introduced so that the language might remain understandable for the various members of the highly diversified community that has adopted it for its intercultural relationships…
English Deutsche

2052. After the Language Revolution: A glimpse from the future
Playing with his computer, my friend J.K. (he insists on being kept anonymous) found by chance a program which gave him access to future files, especially a series of documents typed in the 2050's. Unfortunately, he did not keep track of what he was doing and has not found the way back to his trove. Still, we are very lucky since, stumbling upon a text dealing with the language problem, he had the presence of mind to print it out for me. Here it is
English Deutsche Esperanto Français Nederlands Portuguese

The language of power
When you travel all over the world, you soon realize that English is the language of power. Outside of English speaking countries, the victims of the system do not speak English, or at least they do not master it at a level which would put them on an equal footing with native speakers. Those who have a real mastery of English belong to the ruling classes, to business, to academe, to the comprador class and, in a number of countries, to the media
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Esperanto: european or asiatic language?
The national and local languages of the world are firmly linked to specific peoples and places. But the International Language Esperanto is identified with no particular nation or geographical area
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Le jour où le téléphone était tabou
A vrai dire, il ne va pas être facile d'expliquer ce qu'il en est. Nous nous attaquons à ce que le jargon psychologique appelle une névrose. Dans un corps dont tous les organes sont sains, il peut y avoir une maladie qui frappe au niveau du fonctionnement, des relations entre les organes. De même, dans une société comme la nôtre, des millions d'individus peuvent être psychiquement très sains et vivre dans une société névrosée. Or, la névrose de Babel réagit comme toute névrose : elle se défend, elle résiste…
Français Nederlands Russian

Understanding Among Africans
There is something depressing in watching two Africans trying to communicate by gestures, when one, a Rwandan – with Kinyargwanda as his mother tongue – has made the effort of assimilating Swahili and French, and the other, a Nigerian, is capable of using, besides the Agatu of his native village, three languages as important as Hausa, Arabic and English…
English Français

Psychological Reactions to Esperanto
To a psychologist investigating reactions to the word "Esperanto" two facts are immediately apparent: a high percentage of those invited to give their opinion have a great deal to say about it; and they regard as self-evident, and in many cases cite without prompting, various statements which are contrary to verifiable reality, for example: "no one has ever written a novel straight into Esperanto"…
English Española Esperanto

Why does an American Use Esperanto?
New acquaintances at times express surprise when they learn that I, an American, use Esperanto instead of English in Japan. Sometimes they don't even believe that I am really an American, because they have only heard me speak Esperanto.
Well, it's true that the majority of Americans prefer to use English
Click here to view English version…
Click here to view Esperanto version…

English as the first foreign language in Swiss schools: realism or crawling?
Quebeckers call it crawling, the tendency to always give in to English. Is the decision of several German speaking Swiss canton governments to teach English as the first foreign language a case of that sort of resignation of dignity?…
English Français Italiano Esperanto Русский

Esperanto, a Western Language?
If you examine Esperanto from the outside, you’ll be tempted to consider it a Western language. Its pronunciation will remind you of the sounds of Italian and its vocabulary has, to a large extent, a definite Romance flavor. If you have the opportunity to hear a conversation in that language, you will soon notice that "yes" is used just as in English and is pronounced in the same way (but it is written jes)
English Français Português
Española Italiano Русский

Where is Myth? Where Reality?
They told me, when I was a kid: "Don’t be afraid to ask your way. Use your tongue and you’ll go to the ends of the world." But just a few miles away people spoke another language. To ask them anything was maddeningly useless.
They told me: "Esperanto is worthless, because it has no culture." Yet when I met speakers of Esperanto in Eastern Europe, Asia, Latin America, most were more cultured than their fellows of the same socio-economic level. And when I attended international debates in that language, the intellectual level really impressed me
Dansk Français Lietuviškai Română Русский
Deutsche Ελληνικά Nederlandse Slovenčina  
English Íslenska Polski Suomi  
Española Italiano Português Svenska  

Some Comments on Ignorance About Esperanto
Not if you observe it in its practical use. In countries like Poland, Hungary, Finnland, Latvia, Russia, Japan, China, Uzbekistan and many others, Esperanto proves to be quite useful, especially in small towns, where English is not of much use. I know of Americans who had a similar experience in France. I've had access through Esperanto to a segment of the local populations with which most foreigners have no contact, and a possibility of discussing in depth various topics with much more ease and comfort than in any other language
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Psychological Aspects of the World Language Problem and of Esperanto
We can approach the world language problem in many different ways; for example, politically, linguistically, financially and economically and so on. Probably because of the distortions of my professional training I approach it from a psychological point of view. I believe that the importance of this point of view has not been correctly understood

English Esperanto Italiano Беларуская

Esperanto
Esperanto is the most widely spoken constructed international language. The name derives from D-ro Esperanto, the pseudonym under which L. L. Zamenhof first published the Unua Libro in 1887. Zamenhof's goal was to create an easy and flexible language as a universal second language to foster peace and international understanding
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