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Articles for Translators and Translation Companies
Countries




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Average wages in European countries
This is a map and list of countries containing monthly (annual divided by 12 months) gross and net income (after taxes) average wages in Europe in their local currency and in euros. The chart below reflects the average (mean) wage as reported by various data providers…
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The length of December 22 day in different cities of the world
The following tables contain information on the length of the day on the winter solstice of the Northern Hemisphere and the summer solstice of the Southern Hemisphere (i.e. December solstice). The data was collected from the website of the Finnish Meteorological Institute…
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List of countries by population in 2012
This is a list of countries by population. The list includes independent countries and inhabited dependent territories based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1. Also given in percent is each country's population compared to the population of the world, which according to the United States Census Bureau population clock is estimated at 7.055 billion…
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How to do business in Australia
With strong economic power, various ethnic groups, and cultural diversity, Australia is attractive to foreign businesses. However, Australia has many social and cultural differences when compared to the United States. Be prepared before pursuing business relationships in Australia…
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How to do Business in South Africa
Are you currently doing business in South Africa, or are you planning to in the near future? Consider this…
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How to do business in Thailand
Are you currently doing business in Thailand, or planning to in the near future? Consider this…
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How to do business in India
India’s professional landscape has changed drastically in the last two decades due in part to the technology boom, the film industry, and tourism. Though the decision-making process for many businesses has sped up, traditional in-person meetings, networking events, and taking the time to develop relationships continue to boast higher levels of success…
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How to Do Business in Spain
Currently doing business in Spain, or plan to in the near future? Consider this.
- Spanish is the world's second most spoken language.
- Spain has an incredible tourist industry as one of the top 5 most visited countries in the world. In 2007, there were nearly 60 million foreign visitors
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Libya: History, facts, and culture
Libya, with the name and borders we know today, only came into being in the twentieth century, but this area of North Africa has been a crossroads of civilization for thousands of years. The earliest inhabitants are believed to have been nomadic Berber tribes. The seafaring Phoenicians established trading relations with the Berbers and other peoples in the area and exported goods such as olive oil, ivory, animals, and wine to the rest of the Mediterranean and Africa
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Germany: History, government, and culture
Germanic and Celtic tribes, hailing originally from Russia, were living in the region now known as Germany by 1000 BC. These tribes were continually at war with the Romans. In AD 400, a group called the Franks defeated the Romans
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Brazilian Business Practices
Brazilians do business through personal relationships. If you want to do business in Brazil, you must first reach out to an appropriate Brazilian contact within your industry to introduce you to the right people. A great place to start is through the U.S. Department of Commerce and the American Chamber of Commerce in Brazil
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Japan: History, facts, and culture
In the mid-nineteenth century, following two decades of stability and isolation from foreign influence, Japan opened its ports and began to swiftly modernize and industrialize. Over the next hundred years, Japan became one of the world’s most technologically and militarily advanced countries, taking on the forces of both China and Russia
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Countries by credit rating
This is a list of countries by credit rating, showing long-term sovereign credit ratings as reported by the three major credit rating agencies: Standard & Poor's, Fitch and Moody's
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Agop Hacikyan's A Summer without Dawn
A flock without its shepherd, lost and struck down... Invisible but violent surges shake the miserable history of the life of my people. The callous hunters have caught the defenseless fish in their net. The atmosphere is filled with poison. There is no escape. Destruction, horror, and violence on the one hand, and indifference and dirty hearts on the other hand...Our bodies have rotted, our souls desecrated, life is coated with corpses...". This is how the prominent Armenian composer and musicologist
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My flat in Prague
I originally wrote this page as part of my first lingering efforts to get out of Prague. It was a blast the first eight years, but slowly the village mentality started creeping in and gossip seemed to increasingly abound like moldy mushrooms after a rainy day. Not only the expats seemed to change, but the locals as well, who underwent an interesting transition from communism to capitalism as I wrote about in my reflections of the Czech Republic
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Traveling through Bulgaria
So, I guess you might already know this, but I'm officially on my first trip this year and second trip with Misha. We were trying to figure out where to go while fitting into my tight expense limitations. We were originally talking a lot about going to Portugal. We both knew people there and it looked promising, since we could stay places for free and people would suggest things to do
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Czech Republic: My Reflections
When I first came to the Czech Republic, things felt exciting. I imagined that the conversion from communism to capitalism was like turning over one of those glass balls so that it looks like snow is falling on a village. Everything was overturned, things were changing very fast, and everyone seemed to be filled with hope. Even those who came from abroad and who felt hope in developing a successful business here. It was often compared to Paris after the second world war, when the inflow of American money helped create a robust and joyful atmosphere
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Poland
Here are a few interesting facts about Poland.
1. The population of Poland is 39 million people.
2. The six biggest cities in Poland are Warsaw, Lodz, Krakow, Wroclaw, Poznan, and Gdansk…
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How to Do Business in Poland
Established as an independent nation in the middle of the 10th century, Poland reached its political and military zenith in the 16th before internal fighting combined with external influence provoked its partition. Poland briefly regained its independence in 1918 only to see it lost again following the invasion by German and Soviet troops in 1939…
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How to Do Business in Turkey
Turkey is strategically positioned at the crossroads of Europe, Asia and the Middle East and the U.S. is Turkey’s fourth largest trading partner…
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How to Do Business in Sweden
Sweden is a predominantly middle class country with one of the most far-reaching social security systems in the world. Patriotism is important to Swedes, who are very proud of their nation, towns and regions…
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How to Do Business in Norway
Olga Pechnenko Kopp, our Oil and Gas accounts manager, briefly interviewed one of her clients for some current takeaways for anyone wanting to do business in Norway, from an Oil and Gas industry perspective. This is followed by more in-depth information about the Oil and Gas industry in Norway, and then we wrap things up with our usual brief notes on business cultural etiquette…
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How to Do Business in Estonia
Tallinn (recent historical name: Reval) is the capital city and main seaport of Estonia. It is located on Estonia’s north coast to the Baltic Sea, 80 kilometres south of Helsinki…
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How to Do Business in the United Arab Emirates (UAE)
In February of this year, President Bush faced a storm of criticism over a decision to let a subsidiary of United Arab Emirates (UAE) government-controlled maritime management firm Dubai Ports World run ports in several U.S. cities…
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How to Do Business in Chile
Chileans are very nationalistic and are proud of their country, as well as of their literacy — the 95% rate puts them among the best educated in the world. Predominantly Roman Catholic (89%), family is the primary structure of society…
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How to Do Business in Austria
Austrians are proud of their contributions to world civilization. They see themselves as modern, liberal and cultured. Austrians have a great love for the outdoors (i.e., walking, skiing, climbing, etc.)…
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How to Do Business in Belgium
Belgium is comprised of two primary cultural groups. The Dutch-speaking Flemings live in Flanders, in the north, and make up 55% of the population. The French-speaking Walloons live in Wallonia, in the south, and make up 33% of the population…
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How to Do Business in Luxembourg
Luxembourgers cherish their independence and separate identity in Europe. Modesty, friendship and strong national pride are valued. They enjoy a slower pace of life than most of northern Europe. Family is very important. Parents influence every aspect of their children’s lives; however, this is weakening as more young people leave the country to study/work abroad…
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How to Do Business in Greece
Families are very important in Greece. Elders are highly respected, and children care for their elderly parents. Children are disciplined firmly, but parents (even those who are poor) spend a great deal of their income on feeding, clothing and educating their children…
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How to Do Business in Philippines
Filipinos are casual, fun loving, sensitive and hospitable people. Personal and family honor are stressed, as well as dignity and pride. Education is highly valued and families make great sacrifices to educate their children. Hiya (shame) is instilled in Filipinos at an early age. To be shamed is the greatest form of disgrace…
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How to Do Business in Hong Kong
Hong Kong is very sophisticated and cosmopolitan, blending the cultures of Asia and Europe. Its people are highly educated, very motivated and westernized. Hong Kong is 98% Chinese (Cantonese), but the people view themselves as different from other Chinese. Cantonese habits and customs are dominant…
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How to Do Business in the USA
Throughout most of its history, the United States has had influxes of immigration. The ethnic mix is 83% white (generally of European descent, but also from the Middle East and Latin America), 12% African-American, 3% Asian and about 1% Native American. Today the biggest immigrant groups are from Latin countries…
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How to Do Business in Portugal
Portugal is a self-styled country comprised of generally reserved and understated people. The Portuguese are traditional and conservative. People do not quickly embrace change and innovation. The Catholic Church has a strong influence on people’s lives…
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How to Do Business in Malaysia
Malays are proud of their country, their ancestral background and their economic success. Ethnic tensions exist between Malays (60%) and Chinese (31%) over preferential quotas. Chinese feel these policies make them second-class citizens; Malays support these policies, which they feel are their only way to overcome traditional dominance…
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How to Do Business in Turkey
Turks are extremely patriotic. They are proud of their ancestors and of the achievements of their modern society. The family is the most important social unit. Each person is dependent upon and loyal to the family. Rural life is still traditional, but in cities women frequently work outside the home…
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How to Do Business in Switzerland
The Swiss value cleanliness, honesty, hard work, and material possessions. Motto: “Unity, yes; Uniformity, no.” They are very proud of their environment and have a long tradition of freedom. They value sobriety, thrift, tolerance, punctuality and a sense of responsibility. They are very proud of their neutrality and promotion of worldwide peace. The Swiss have a deep-rooted respect for saving and the material wealth it brings…
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How to Do Business in Australia
Home to nearly five million immigrants from 160 countries, Australia is rich in cultural diversity. Australians, or “Aussies,” enjoy an easy-going lifestyle and are generally friendly and relaxed. Modesty and equality are valued…
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How to Do Business in Ireland
The Irish are interested in people and place great value on the individual. They are naturally courteous, quick-witted and will go out of their way to welcome visitors to their country. Don’t rush the Irish. Although they work very hard, the Irish are dedicated to a less stressful lifestyle that allows time for friends and family, a visit to the pub, a cup of tea, or just a bit of a chat on the corner…
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How to Do Business in Germany
Germans value order, privacy and punctuality. They are thrifty, hard working and industrious. Germans respect perfectionism in all areas of business and private life. In Germany, there is a sense of community and social conscience and strong desire for belonging…
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How to Do Business in Finland
Loyalty, reliability, self-sufficiency and independence are highly valued. Finns are proud of their heritage and current society (they are leaders in peace conferences and international peace initiatives). They enjoy nature and proudly protect their environment, which is one of the cleanest in the world…
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How to Do Business in United Kingdom
Four countries make up the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland—England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Residents of any of these countries may be called “British.” Use “English,” “Scot” or “Scotsman,” “Welsh” and “Irish” or “Northern Irish” only when certain of a person’s heritage…
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How to Do Business in South Korea
South Korea is a strong economic power with a huge global presence. Koreans in the business sector are often highly educated in Western customs and traditions, but continue to uphold their own nation’s strong conservative and traditional values, so don’t overestimate their tolerance and understanding of Western culture…
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How to Do Business in Korea
Korea is one of the most homogeneous countries in the world, racially and linguistically. It has its own culture, language, dress and cuisine, separate and distinct from its neighboring countries. Hard work, filial piety and modesty are characteristics esteemed by Koreans…
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How to Do Business in Argentina
Argentines are very proud of their country and culture. They are well-educated and sophisticated and like to be viewed as cosmopolitan and progressive. Because 85% of Argentina’s population hails from Italy, Spain, Austria, France, Germany, Great Britain, Portugal, Russia, Switzerland, Poland and the Middle East, Argentines tend to identify with Europeans…
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How to Do Business in Italy
Long a world-renowned destination for tourists, Italy also holds abundant opportunities for business travelers. However, it also has many social and workplace customs that are quite different than what you find in the United States. By highlighting some of these key differences, let's look at ways to prepare you for your next Italian business trip…
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Spotlight on Italy
Cultural achievement is Italy’s greatest source of pride. Inventiveness, imagination, intelligence and education are prized. Personal relations are scrupulously maintained with loyalty highly valued, especially in families…
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Czech Culture
The Czech Republic is an incredibly beautiful country with a rich history, fascinating people and an abundance of business opportunities. Yet the country remains relatively obscure and unknown to Americans, many of whom still call it “Czechoslovakia.”…
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Spotlight on Canada
The vast majority of Canadians claim European ancestry. Four in nine Canadians claim some British ancestry and a little less than one in three have some French ancestry. Eighty percent of the residents in Quebec have French ancestry. Eighty percent of native French speakers live in Quebec…
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Spotlight on India
India is one of the most diverse countries in the world. It is a sophisticated, modern, industrial leader that is home to many primitive tribes and millions of poor people. Religion and language separate people. The caste system limits social mobility (600,000 people belong to the lowest caste). Because of disparities in distribution of wealth, a wide gap separates the few wealthy from the many poor…
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Country Profile - Taiwan
The people of Taiwan value hard work, patience, humility, friendliness and respect for others. They are highly motivated and centered around the extended family, their most important economic resource. They dislike loud, showy and unrefined behavior. Bringing shame on anyone ("loss of face") brings shame to the entire family…
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Country Profile - The Netherlands
The Dutch society is egalitarian and modern. The people are modest, tolerant, independent, self-reliant, and entrepreneurial. They value education, hard work, ambition and ability. The Dutch have an aversion to the nonessential. Ostentatious behavior is to be avoided. Accumulating money is fine, but spending money is considered something of a vice…
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How to Do Business in Singapore
Singapore is a conglomeration of Chinese (76%), Malay (15%) and Indian (6%) cultures. In the past, this racial mixture has led to some conflict. However, today most Singaporeans enjoy racial harmony and national unity. Each group works hard to maintain its cultural traditions while building a modern, cohesive society…
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Country Profile - France
The French adhere to a strong and homogeneous set of values. They cherish their culture, history, language and cuisine, which is considered an art. The French have been and are today world leaders in fashion, food, wine, art and architecture. They embrace novelty, new ideas and manners with enthusiasm as long as they are elegant…
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How to Do Business in Brazil
Brazilians are friendly and free-spirited, with an incredible zest for life. They are very risk-oriented and very creative. Predominantly Roman Catholic (73%), families are large and often include extended family members. Family, educational and socioeconomic backgrounds are important to Brazilians…
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How to Do Business in Russia
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia languished through several years of chaos and unrest. It has now emerged as an economic and political powerhouse, a powerhouse full of opportunity for foreign investors and companies…
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Country Profile: Russia
Russia has had a long history of totalitarianism, which has resulted in a rather fatalistic approach to living. The desire to work individually under personal initiative was suppressed by the Czarist and Communist states…
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Ten things you didn't know about China
In 2005, Chery (its English translation should have been “Cheery” but there was a mistake in the translation process and it was decided by the company to not correct the error) was upgraded to ISO/TS 16949:2002 production quality, the highest and strictest quality control system in the global auto industry…
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Learning how to negotiate with the Chinese
Whenever a client of ours comes back from their first trip to China to negotiate a deal I always ask “Did you remember not to say when you were returning?”
The three pillars of successful negotiating are: time, power, and knowledge. You can make a better deal for yourself if you have all three in your favor. The only thing I can really help a client with is knowledge…

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Going local in China
Clientside News recently interviewed Shinichi Kojima, Country Manager of TOIN China, to get an insider’s perspective on how China and the general emergence of Asia is impacting the localization industry…
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How to Do Business in China, Article 1
Two things commonly considered when doing business in China are that it is a hierarchical system and that Internet use is not as widespread as it is in other areas of the world. But do you know why? The hierarchical system stems from the teachings of Confucius. Though China’s government encourages atheism, its constitution guarantees religious freedom
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How to Do Business in China, Article 2
Are you currently doing business in China, or are you planning to in the near future? Consider this
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China
Deeply rooted in Chinese society is the need to belong and conform to a unit, whether the family, a political party or an organization. The family is the focus of life for most Chinese. Age and rank are highly respected. However, to the dismay of older people, today's young people are rapidly modernizing, wearing blue jeans and sunglasses, drinking Coke and driving motorbikes…
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How to Do Business in Indonesia
Indonesia’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for 2006 was US$364 billion (US$960 bn PPP). In 2006, nominal per capita GDP was US$1,640, and per capita GDP PPP was US$4,752 (International Dollars). The services sector is the economy’s largest and accounts for 45.3% of GDP (2005). This is followed by industry (40.7%) and agriculture (14.0%). However, agriculture employs more people than other sectors…
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How to Do Business in Sweden and Finland
The four major Scandinavian languages - Danish, Swedish, Norwegian and Icelandic - are closely related.
Finnish, on the other hand, is not a Germanic language, and is completely different from the others. While a Swede and a Dane often understand each other fairly well in a conversation, neither of them would understand Finnish…

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Spotlight On Japan
Japan is a highly structured and traditional society. Great importance is placed on loyalty, politeness, personal responsibility and on everyone working together for the good of the larger group. Education, ambition, hard work, patience and determination are held in the highest regard. The crime rate is one of the lowest in the world…
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How to Do Business in Mexico
There are plenty of great business opportunities with our neighbors to the south, but there are also plenty of potential pitfalls, not to mention lots of cultural differences between the USA and Mexico
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Spotlight on Mexico
Mexico is a very class-conscious society where social stratifications are well-defined. Upper class Mexicans will not dirty their hands with tasks they find beneath them. A sense of fatalism is quite strong among many Mexicans, who feel that their path through life is largely preordained. Macho attitudes are inculcated in Mexican males almost from birth, and machismo plays a pervasive role in shaping Mexican culture…
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